International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Online ISSN: 2312-6477
Print ISSN: 2313-0393
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No. 3

Economic Benefits of Waste Management Based on Cocoa Farming System in Rural Area: Evidence from East Kolaka District of Southeast Sulawesi Province

Pages: 202-210
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Economic Benefits of Waste Management Based on Cocoa Farming System in Rural Area: Evidence from East Kolaka District of Southeast Sulawesi Province

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.202.210

Julian Witjaksono , Rita Indrasti , Jefny B. Markus Rawung

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Julian Witjaksono , Rita Indrasti , Jefny B. Markus Rawung (2020). Economic Benefits of Waste Management Based on Cocoa Farming System in Rural Area: Evidence from East Kolaka District of Southeast Sulawesi Province. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(3): 202-210. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.202.210
Indonesia is the three largest countries producing cocoa in the world. However, the productivity tends to be slow down, which cause concern income generation for smallholder farmers across the county. This study deals with the performance of diversification based on creating cocoa by product and waste management of livestock integrated farming in order to increasing household income due to low productivity. This research covers more than 120 household farmers as the respondent through the survey by using questionnaire in three districts population sample. The results of this study indicate that the response of farmers in this study location those are introduced technology components shows effective value. This shows a positive support for the results of this study. The results of the cost and feasibility analysis of the business of making solid organic fertilizers, processing cocoa beans and making bio-char or biological charcoal of cocoa pod show those businesses can be a pattern of diversification of farm household income in the small scale concept. The household scale model of this study development through the zero waste concepts applied at the study site is expected to be a recommendation for the local government in an effort to improve the welfare of cocoa farmer households in this region.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that the zero waste models based on the cocoa commodity becoming the diversification of income generation for smallholder farmers due to the low productivity of cocoa beans in enhancing household income.

Perception of Ethno-Veterinary Medicine among Poultry Farmers in Oyo State

Pages: 194-201
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Perception of Ethno-Veterinary Medicine among Poultry Farmers in Oyo State

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.194.201

Bolanle Oyindamola Adebayo , J. O. Oladeji , K. Y Ogunleye , A. A. Adejumo

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Bolanle Oyindamola Adebayo , J. O. Oladeji , K. Y Ogunleye , A. A. Adejumo (2020). Perception of Ethno-Veterinary Medicine among Poultry Farmers in Oyo State. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(3): 194-201. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.194.201
Getting to source for credit to finance poultry production as well as high cost of conventional medicines have been a major constraint among poultry farmers in Oyo state, Nigeria. The relatively low cost of ethno-veterinary medicine comes with added advantage such that when used for the treatment of poultry diseases, farmers would have the opportunity to reduce cost and increase their scale of production. Therefore, the study assessed perception of ethno-veterinary medicine among poultry farmers in Oyo state. Primary data were collected from 119 randomly selected poultry farmers. Well-structured questionnaire along with interview schedule was used to elicit information from the poultry farmers. Respondents’ mean age and years of experience were 44.3±12.3 and 9.3±7.0 years, respectively. Most of the respondents were male (90.8%), married (84%), sole proprietors (91.6%) with mean flock size of 6,255.8 ±2, 2462.5 birds. Majority (84.0%) of the respondents had low level of awareness of ethno-veterinary medicine. Lack of standardisation (2.9±0.2) ranked first among the constraint to the use of ethno-veterinary medicine. Most (65.5%) of the respondents had favourable disposition towards ethno-veterinary medicine. The study concludes that poultry farmers had favourable disposition towards ethno-veterinary medicine despite the constraints associated with its use and their low level of awareness. The study recommended the need for experimentation of medicinal plants with potentials to treat poultry diseases as well as increased sensitisation on the use of ethno-veterinary medicine to poultry farmers.
Contribution/ Originality
The study is one of the very few studies which investigated poultry farmers’ perception of ethnoveterinary medicine and provided relevant information and recommendations which when provided which when implemented would decrease the cost of poultry production by increasing the use of environmentally friendly ethnoveterinary medicine among poultry farmers.

Trend Analysis of Climatic Variables at Mulde Location of Maharashtra State

Pages: 185-193
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Trend Analysis of Climatic Variables at Mulde Location of Maharashtra State

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.185.193

D. N. Jagtap , P. M. Ingle , R. S. Mule , P. S. Bodake , M. M. Burondkar

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Sen, P. K. (1968). Estimates of the regression coefficient based on Kendall's tau. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 63(324), 1379-1389.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1968.10480934.

Some'e, B. S., Ezani, A., & Tabari, H. (2012). Spatiotemporal trends and change point of precipitation in Iran. Atmospheric Research, 113, 1-12.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.04.016.

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D. N. Jagtap , P. M. Ingle , R. S. Mule , P. S. Bodake , M. M. Burondkar (2020). Trend Analysis of Climatic Variables at Mulde Location of Maharashtra State. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(3): 185-193. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.185.193
The present study comprises the seasonal & annual trends of different climatic variables for Mulde location of Maharashtra state. The trend analysis for different climatic variables such as maximum temperature (TMax), minimum temperature (TMin), rainfall (RF), morning relative humidity (RH I), afternoon relative humidity (RH II), evaporation (EVP), wind speed (WS) and sunshine hours (BSS) was carried out for 25 years from 1991-2015. The trend of TMax was tested and indicated that the trend was significantly increasing except southwest monsoon while in case of TMin trend was non significantly increasing during different periods. In case of rainfall trend was increasing during annual, winter and summer but statistically non-significant at 95 % level of significance and during southwest monsoon and northeast monsoon decreasing trend but statistically non-significant at 95 % level of significance. The trend analysis for RH I indicated that during annual, summer and northeast season the trend was significantly increasing at 95 % level of significance and while RH II, linear regression analysis indicated for all periods the trend was significantly increasing. In case of evaporation, analysis indicated that trends of all periods increasing and statistically significant at 95 % level of significance except summer and northeast monsoon while for BSS, indicated that trend was decreasing and statistically significant at 95 % level of significance except southwest monsoon. In case of WS, analysis showed that trend was significantly decreasing for all periods at 95 % level of significance.
Contribution/ Originality
The present work on trend analysis using non-parametric test such as MK test was carried out for Mulde Maharashtra. The work was based upon the historical data about 25 years. Very few attempts were made earlier regarding the trend analysis of climatic parameters using MK test. The study will be very useful for water resouces planing, crop planning and for precision agriculture.

Market Participation and Food Security Status of Bio-Fortified Cassava Processors in South Western Nigeria

Pages: 174-184
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Market Participation and Food Security Status of Bio-Fortified Cassava Processors in South Western Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.174.184

Kolapo Adetomiwa , Olayinka J. Yusuf , Muhammed Opeyemi Abdulmumin

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Abass, A., Olarinde, L., Okoruwa, V., Amaza, P., Awoyale, W., Alabi, T., & Ndavi, M. (2019). Drivers of technical efficiency in cassava processing in Nigeria: Implications for a commercializing food sector. Tropicultura, 37(2), 573-588.

Adenegan, K. O., Olorunsomo, S. O., & Nwauwa, L. O. E. (2013). Determinants of market orientation among smallholders cassava farmers in Nigeria. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 13(6), 56-66.

Adeniyi, O. R., & Akande, T. O. (2015). Resource use and technical efficiency in value addition to Cassava: A case study on Gari and Fufu processing in Ogun State, Nigeria. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 5(2), 139-147.Available at: https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2015/12018.

Adesiyan, O., Adesiyan, A., & Oluitan, R. (2012). Market supply response of cassava farmers in Ile-Ife, Osun State. Canadian Social Science, 8(3), 61-63.

Agwu, N. M., Anyanwu, C. I., & Mendie, E. I. (2013). Socio-economic determinants of commercialization among smallholder farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. Paper presented at the 4th International Conference of the African Association of Agricultural Economists (ICAAAE), September 22-25, 2013, Hammamet, Tunisia.

Akerele, R. O., Omotosho, O. A., & Sholotan, O. S. (2013). Factors influencing food security status of rural farming households in North Central Nigeria. Agricultural Journal, 2(3), 351 – 357.

Ayoade, A. R., & Ige, A. S. (2013). Determination of farmers' coping strategies to household food insecurity in Oyo State, Nigeria. Thesis Submitted to Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Ladoke, Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.  

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Kolapo Adetomiwa , Olayinka J. Yusuf , Muhammed Opeyemi Abdulmumin (2020). Market Participation and Food Security Status of Bio-Fortified Cassava Processors in South Western Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(3): 174-184. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.174.184
A better understanding of the extent of food insecurity and its determinants, particularly among rural households, is a step towards proffering solutions to this menace. The study assessed market participation and food security status of bio-fortified cassava processors in South-Western Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to source for data from 160 bio-fortified cassava processor through a well-structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, household commercialization index, Food Insecurity Experience-Based Measurement Scales-United States Department of Agriculture (FIEMS-USDA) and Multinomial Logistic Regression (MLR) were used to analyze the data. The result of the study showed that the mean age of the processors was 48(±11.36). Majority (70.6%) of the bio-fortified cassava processor had a high market participation level with a mean household market participation index of 63.14±7.23%. About (58.75%) of the respondents were food insecure with moderate hunger level. The result of the MLR showed that farm income, the value of processed bio-fortified cassava output, susceptibility to sickness, membership of association and access to extension services were significantly related to food insecurity status of the bio-fortified cassava processor. Appropriate programs and policy measures that would increase the value of the processed bio-fortified cassava output and farm income should be targeted towards the processors as this would help to reduce their dependency and increase the food security status of their households.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated market participation and food security in Nigeria especially among the biofortified cassava processors. It uses new estimation methodology and ascertained the contributing factors that will ensure food security among the biofortified cassava processors in Nigeria if properly harnessed.

Estimation of Natural Variability in Different Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) Sudanese Genotypes

Pages: 154-173
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Estimation of Natural Variability in Different Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) Sudanese Genotypes

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.154.173

Manal A. M. Salih , Abdalwahab H. Abdallah , Sayadat Eltigani

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Manal A. M. Salih , Abdalwahab H. Abdallah , Sayadat Eltigani (2020). Estimation of Natural Variability in Different Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) Sudanese Genotypes. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(3): 154-173. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.154.173
Millet is grown mostly as the main grain crop in the drier Western Parts of Sudan (Darfur and Kordofan States) where climatic conditions permit only millet production. Also there is a limited cultivation of millet in the Eastern region of the country. Most species of Pennisetum are protogynous, but pearl millet is more conspicuous in this regard. This facilitates the introgression of characters from other annual penicillaries into pearl millet and hence has helped in the genetic enrichment of this species. In this study 20 pearl millet genotypes were collected from different parts of the Sudan with concentration on the western states. They were evaluated to assess the extent of variation among them in morphological and yield parameters, using a randomized complete block design with two replications. The twenty pearl millet genotypes exhibited significant differences in most of the characters studied. Out of the 19 parameters, only yield per tiller panicle and total yield per plant were non-significantly different. There is a noticeable variation, not only among the different genotypes of the same species but also within the same genotype or cultivar. Such variation may be attributed to the open pollination system of this crop
Contribution/ Originality
This study will add basic information to the existing literature concerning Sudanese genotypes. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the Sudanese local Pennisetum glaucum genotypes, giving full botanical and agronomic characters. This study can elucidate the use of these genotypes in any future improving programs.

Comparing the Molluscicidal Action of Metaldehyde, Oxamyl, Potassium Nitrate and a Botanical Insecticide for Managing Limacolaria Spp Infesting Banana Plantations in Cameroon

Pages: 143-153
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Comparing the Molluscicidal Action of Metaldehyde, Oxamyl, Potassium Nitrate and a Botanical Insecticide for Managing Limacolaria Spp Infesting Banana Plantations in Cameroon

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.143.153

Tientcheu Cheke Bernadette Limunga

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Tientcheu Cheke Bernadette Limunga (2020). Comparing the Molluscicidal Action of Metaldehyde, Oxamyl, Potassium Nitrate and a Botanical Insecticide for Managing Limacolaria Spp Infesting Banana Plantations in Cameroon. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(3): 143-153. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.143.153
Snails are an emerging problem in banana production in Cameroon due to the damages caused on the banana fruits. They attack the banana fruits resulting in aesthetically disfigured fruits. This study was carried out to compare the effectiveness of selected agrochemicals in the laboratory and the field for the control of the snails. The agrochemicals compared were Bromorex® (chilli pepper extracts), Potassium Nitrate, Vydate® (Oxamyl), and Limace® (Metaldehyde). Laboratory results showed that snail mortality caused by the different treatments after 7 and 14 days was highest for Limace (37% and 100% respectively). Limace® had the highest mean percentage (86.4%) of snails at the snail zone as compared with the control (6.1%) which was the least. Field results showed that plants treated with Limace® had the lowest mean number of snails counted on the corms and pseudostems during the 12-week period while the Control (2.67snails/plant) had the highest mean value followed by Bromorex®. But the mean number of living snails with plant treated with Potassium Nitrate, Vydate® and Limace® increased from the 10th week albeit less than 1 snail/plant. During the first three weeks plants treated with Limace® and Vydate® the number of dead snails was relatively higher (1.6 snails/plant and 1.08 snails/plant respectively). Of the four treatments assessed, Limace® was most effective in the management of snails followed by Vydate®. Limace® controlled the snails best both in the laboratory and on the field at concentrations of 5 g per container (7x7x13 cm) and 50 g per banana mat respectively.
Contribution/ Originality
This research is one of the very few researches that have compared the molluscicidal effects of different chemical groups on Limacolaria species, an emerging pest of crops. In addition, it is one of the few researches that have tested molluscicides effects on Limacolaria spp. in the field.

Analytical Evaluation of Four Accessions of Dialium guineense (L.) Leaves

Pages: 134-142
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Analytical Evaluation of Four Accessions of Dialium guineense (L.) Leaves

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.134.142

Awotedu, Olamilekan Lanre , Ariwoola, Oluwole Sesan , Chukwudebe, Eccepacem , Ajekigbe, Joyce Mbechun

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Awotedu, Olamilekan Lanre , Ariwoola, Oluwole Sesan , Chukwudebe, Eccepacem , Ajekigbe, Joyce Mbechun (2020). Analytical Evaluation of Four Accessions of Dialium guineense (L.) Leaves. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(3): 134-142. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.134.142
The study evaluates the diversity of accessions of Dialium guineense collected from four different eco-geographical zones of Nigeria. Physicochemical composition was undertaken using the parameters recommended by WHO. The physicochemical parameters evaluated in this study include; the ash values (Loss on drying, Water- soluble Ash, Total ash content, acid insoluble ash, Nitrated ash, Sulphated ash), the exhaustive extraction was done using various solvents: Ethyl-acetate, Methanol and Aqueous with increasing polarity using soxhlet apparatus. Proximate composition which includes; crude fibre, crude protein, crude fat and total carbohydrate were investigated and organoleptic characters and the PH of the plants across the accessions were also investigated. Physicochemical and Proximate parameter investigated shows a reasonable amount of the nutritional composition of the plants for all the accessions. Organoleptic characters evaluated include; taste, odour, colour, sand and silica, insect infestation and rodent infestation, while the PH for all the accessions ranges from 6.0-6.5. Significant differences were observed between the studied parameters across the accessions. Variations observed in the results of this physicochemical evaluation could be pioneered by several factors such as environment, habitat, age of plant, season and chemical race of plants. Thus, from the observed result, it is expected that the physicochemical and proximate properties of this genotype will be very useful in the quality of the plant and also in the nutritional composition of the plant.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the variation in the analytical evaluation of D. guineense across different accessions, knowing fully well that several factors such as environment, climate, habitat and chemical nature of plant could pioneer the genotypic behaviour of the plant.

Application of Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) in Development of Suitability Model for Rice Production in Taraba State

Pages: 118-133
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Application of Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) in Development of Suitability Model for Rice Production in Taraba State

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.118.133

Ezra A , Adebayo A.A , Umar A. S

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Ezra A , Adebayo A.A , Umar A. S (2020). Application of Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) in Development of Suitability Model for Rice Production in Taraba State. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(3): 118-133. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.118.133
This research was aim at applying Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) in Agro-Climatic Zoning of Taraba State for rice Production. Climatic variables, Rice Yield, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Land Sat 8 (OLI) and Soil Texture map were the data used. Climatic data of the state were analyzed over time and Space using trend and spatial analysis tools in excel and Arc GIS respectively, while correlation and stepwise regression analysis between rice yield and the climatic variables were analyzed in SPSS. Mean temperature, August and September rainfalls were identified to be the critical Climatic factors affecting the growth and yield of rice in the State. The highly suitable cover places such as; Lisasam, Takum, Donga, Wukari, Mutum Biyu and Bali while the suitable area occupy places like Serti, Lau, Sunkani, Jalingo and Lankaviri. Suitability map produced with NDVI showed that the highly suitable area for Rice cultivation reduced from 31.93% to 28.76%. In regards to this findings, cultivation of rice should be encourage in Highly Suitable and Suitable zones of the State while cultivation of alternative crops other than rice in not suitable area is very important in reducing the risk of crop failure. In addition, application of Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) a Remote Sensing and GIS tool and NDVI plays a significant role in Agro-climatic suitability zoning, as such, the tools are recommended in Agro-climatic research.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the Agricultural planning by determining the suitable area for cultivation of rice in Taraba State. Similarly, this paper contributes the first logical analysis that incorporates Agro-climatic statistical method and MCDM (AHP) method in designing a model for Agro-climatic suitability analysis.

Youth Participation in Sesame Production in Gwer West Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria

Pages: 109-117
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Youth Participation in Sesame Production in Gwer West Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.109.117

Agada, M.O. , Jiriko, R. , Nongu, S. A.

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Agada, M.O. , Jiriko, R. , Nongu, S. A. (2020). Youth Participation in Sesame Production in Gwer West Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(3): 109-117. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.109.117
The study assessed youth participation in sesame production in Gwer West Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from ninety three (93) randomly selected sesame youth farmers using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage and mean) and inferential statistics (correlation). Results of the study showed that participation of youths in sesame production was moderate in land preparation (M=2.39), planting (M=2.01), manual weeding (M=2.05) and harvesting (M=2.03) and low in pesticide application (M=1.98), herbicide application (M=1.96), fertilizer application (M=1.73, threshing (M=1.90), winnowing (M=1.85) and bagging (M=1.80). Farmers sourced information on sesame production mainly from friends/relations (80.6%). Constraints to youths’ participation in sesame production were insect and diseases attack (M=1.89), insufficient agricultural inputs (M=1.83), inconsistency in agricultural programmes for youths (M= 1.80), insufficient agricultural implements (M= 1.74), lack of technical assistance (M=1.72), lack of access to credit facilities (M= 1.72), weed control problem (M=1.66), and poor access to viable markets (M=1.59). Years of formal education (r= -218; p<0.36) and sesame farm size (r= 281; p<0.36) significantly influenced youths’ participation in sesame production in the study area. It was concluded that participation of youth farmers in sesame production was low, but this could be improved by making sesame farming attractive to young people through the provision of production resources, access to education, farm land, and viable markets.
Contribution/ Originality
The study is one of the very few studies which have investigated youth participation in sesame production and identified relevant information for policy development and research on the crop which when implemented could increase its production and productivity and enhance the livelihood of farmers.

The Relationship between Food Production, Agricultural Land, Rice Production, and Rice Price: An Empirical Study on Thailand and Viet Nam

Pages: 98-108
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.98.108

Anh Tru Nguyen

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Anh Tru Nguyen (2020). The Relationship between Food Production, Agricultural Land, Rice Production, and Rice Price: An Empirical Study on Thailand and Viet Nam. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(3): 98-108. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.73.98.108
Food security has been considered as one of priorities in the development of socio-economics of Southeast Asian countries. The article aims to examine the causal relationship between food production, agricultural land, rice production and rice price in Thailand and Viet Nam between 1988 and 2017. We found that agricultural land positively affects food production index. We also found that paddy rice production has a positive relationship with food production index. Results showed that there are directional relationships running from food production index to agricultural land and paddy rice production; from agricultural land to paddy rice production; from paddy rice production to food production index; and from rice price to agricultural land. Further, there is a co-integration among variables in the long run. Lastly, policies are recommended to ensure food security and achieve a sustainable development in Thailand and Viet Nam.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by clarifying the causal relationship between food production, agricultural land, rice production and rice price in Thailand and Viet Nam between 1988 and 2017, using a vector autoregressive model.