Abaidoo, R.C., H.H. Keyser, P.W. Singleton and D. Borthakur, 2000. Bradyrhizobium spp. (TGX) isolates nodulating the new soybean cultivars in Africa are diverse and distinct from bradyrhizobia that nodulate North American soybeans. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 50(1): 225–234.
Alves, B.J.R., R.M. Boddey and S. Urquiaga, 2003. The success of BNF in soybean in Brazil. Plant and Soil, 252(1): 1–9.
Antunes, P.M., D. Deaville and M.J. Goss, 2006. Effect of two AMF life strategies on the tripartite symbiosis with bradyrhizobium japonicum and soybean. Mycorrhiza, 16(3): 167–173.
Barcellos, F.G., J.S. Da Silva Batista, P. Menna and M. Hungria, 2009. Genetic differences between bradyrhizobium japonicum variant strains contrasting in N2-fixation efficiency revealed by representational difference analysis. Arch Microbiol, 191(2): 113–122.
Bisht, R., S. Chaturvedi, R. Srivastava, A.K. Sharma and B.N. Johri, 2009. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, pseudomonas fluorescens and rhizobium leguminosarum on the growth and nutrient status of Dalbergia Sissoo Roxb. Tropical Ecology, 50(2): 231-242.
Cardoso, I.M. and T.W. Kuyper, 2006. Mycorrhizas and tropical soil fertility. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 116(1-2): 72–84.
Farzaneh, M., S. Wichmann, H. Vierheilig and H.P. Kaul, 2009. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza and nitrogen nutrition on growth of chickpea and barley. Pflanzenbauwissenschaften, 13(1): 15–22.
Giller, K.E. and G. Cadisch, 1995. Future benefits from biological nitrogen fixation: An ecological approach to agriculture. Plant and Soil, 174(1-2): 255-277.
Harman, G.E., C.R. Howell, A. Viterbo, I. Chet and M. Lorito, 2004. Trichoderma species — opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts. Microbiology, 2(1): 43-56.
Herridge, D.F., 1982. Use of the ureide technique to describe the nitrogen economy of field-grown soybeans. Plant Physiol, 70(1): 7-11.
Herridge, D.F. and M.B. Peoples, 1990. Ureide assay for measuring nitrogen fixation by nodulated soybean calibrated by 15N methods. Plant Physiol, 93(2): 495-503.
Herridge, D.F., M.B. Peoples and R.M. Boddey, 2008. Global inputs of biological nitrogen fixation in agricultural systems. Plant Soil, 311(1-2): 1–18.
Hungria, M., L.M.O. Chueire, M. Megías, Y. Lamrabet, A. Probanza, F.J. Guttierrez-Mañero and R.J. Campo, 2006. Genetic diversity of indigenous tropical fast-growing rhizobia isolated from soybean nodules. Plant Soil, 288(1-2): 343–356.
IITA, 1982. Automated and semi-automated methods for soil and plant analysis. Ibadan, Nigeria: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture.
John, R.P., R.D. Tyagi, D. Prévost, S.K. Brar, S. Pouleur and R.Y. Surampalli, 2010. Mycoparasitic trichoderma viride as a biocontrol agent against fusarium oxysporum f. Sp. Adzuki and pythium arrhenomanes and as a growth promoter of soybean. Crop Protection, 29(12): 1452-1459.
Manyong, V.M., O. Makinde, N. Sanginga, B. Vanlauwe and J. Diels, 2001. Fertiliser use and definition of farmer domains for impact-oriented research in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystem, 59(2): 129–141.
Marschner, H. and B. Dell, 1994. Nutrient uptake in mycorrhizal symbiosis. Plant and Soil, 159(1): 89-102.
Ortas, I., 2010. Effect of mycorrhiza application on plant growth and nutrient uptake in cucumber production under field conditions. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(1): 116-122.
Osunde, A.O., S. Gwam, A. Bala, N. Sanginga and J.A. Okogun, 2003. Responses to rhizobial inoculation by two promiscuous soybean cultivars in soils of the Southern Guinea Savanna Zone of Nigeria. Biol Fertil Soils, 37(5): 274–279.
Peoples, M.B. and E.T. Craswell, 1992. Biological nitrogen fixation: Investments, expectations and actual contributions to agriculture. Plant and Soil, 141(1-2): 13-39.
Perazzolli, M., B. Roatti, E. Bozza and I. Pertot, 2011. Trichoderma harzianum T39 induces resistance against downy mildew by priming for defense without costs for grapevine. Biological Control, 58(1): 74-82.
Plenchette, C., J.A. Fortin and V. Furlan, 1983. Growth response of several plants species to mycorrhiza in soil of moderate p fertility: I. Mycorrhizal dependency under field conditions. Plant Soil, 70(2): 199-209.
Rudresh, D.L., M.K. Shivaprakasha and R.D. Prasad, 2005. Effect of combined application of rhizobium, phosphate solubilizing bacterium and Trichoderma spp. on growth, nutrient uptake and yield of chickpea (Cicer Aritenium L). Applied Soil Ecology, 28(2): 139–146.
Sanginga, N., R. Abaidoo, K. Dashiell, R.J. Carsky and A. Okogun, 1996. Persistence and effectiveness of rhizobia nodulating promiscuous soybeans in moist Savanna zones of Nigeria. Applied Soil Ecology, 3(3): 215-224.
Schiltz, S., N. Munier-Jolain, C. Jeudy, J. Burstin and C. Salon, 2005. Dynamics of exogenous nitrogen partitioning and nitrogen remobilization from vegetative organs in pea revealed by 15N in vivo labeling throughout seed filling. Plant Physiology, 137(4): 1463–1473.
Shutsrirung, A., S. Pathipan, C. Santasup, K. Senoo, S. Tajima, M. Hisamatsu and A. Bhromsiri, 2002. Symbiotic efficiency and compatibility of native rhizobia in Northern Thailand with different soybean cultivars. I. Field experiment in irrigated traditional soybean-growing area. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 48(4): 491-499.
Soyinfo, C., 2009. History of soybeans and soyfoods in Africa (1857-2009). Available from http://www.soyinfocenter.com/free-online-books.php.
Statistical Analysis System Institute Inc., 2009. SAS/STAT ® 9.2 user’s guide, 2nd Edn., Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
Tefera, H., 2011. Breeding for promiscuous soybeans at IITA. In: Soybean – molecular aspects of breeding, (Ed. A. Sudari?). In tech, Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka: Croatia. pp: 147-162.
Tefera, H., A.Y. Kamara, B. Asafo-Adjei and K.E. Dashiell, 2010. Breeding progress for grain yield and associated traits in medium and late maturing promiscuous soybeans in Nigeria. Euphytica, 175(2): 251–260.
Thuita, M., P. Pypers, L. Herrmann, R.J. Okalebo, C. Othieno, E. Muema and D. Lesueur, 2012. Commercial rhizobial inoculants significantly enhance growth and nitrogen fixation of a promiscuous soybean variety in Kenyan soils. Biol Fertil Soils, 48(1): 87–96.
Trotman, A.A. and R.W. Weaver, 1986. Number and effectiveness of cowpea rhizobia in soils of Guyana. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad), 63(2): 129-131.
Verma, M., S.K. Brar, R.D. Tyagi, R.Y. Surampalli and J.R. Valéro, 2007. Antagonistic fungi, trichoderma spp.: Panoply of biological control. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 37(1): 1–20.
Wang, X., Q. Pan, F. Chen, X. Yan and H. Liao, 2011. Effects of co-inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia on soybean growth as related to root architecture and availability of N and P. Mycorrhiza, 21(3): 173–181.
Weaver, R.W. and L.R. Frederick, 1974. Effect of inoculum rate on competitive nodulation of Glycine max (L.) Merrill: I. Greenhouse Studies. Agron. J, 66(2): 229-232.
Xavier, L.J.C. and J.J. Germida, 2003. Selective interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Viceae enhance pea yield and nutrition. Biol Fertil Soils, 37(5): 261–267.
Zahran, H.H., 1999. Rhizobium-legume symbiosis and nitrogen fixation under severe conditions and in an arid climate. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 63(4): 968–989.
Clement O. Ncho , Didier Lesueur , Adamu A. Yusuf (2015). Combined Microbial Inoculation as a Promising Approach to Enhance Promiscuous Soybean Nodulation and Nitrogen Content in Sudan Savanna. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 2(3): 86-97. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70/2015.2.3/18.104.22.168
Applications of microbial inoculants and reduced amount of inorganic fertilizers could lead to low-input agriculture and sustain smallholders’ crops production. In this study, the effect of promiscuous soybean inoculation with combined microbial inoculants was evaluated during harmattan season under furrow irrigation. Rhizobial inoculants and urea on one hand, and fungal inoculants and triple superphosphate (TSP) on the other hand, were considered as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sources, respectively. The soil was sandy loam and slightly alkaline. Significant effect from rhizobial inoculants was observed on nodule dry weight. As well, the interaction between N and P source had significant effect on %Ndfa. The interaction between 1495MAR and TSP induced the highest %Ndfa. The dual inoculation of 1495MAR and Rhizatech induced relatively high shoot N content. This study showed TGx soybean responded to rhizobial inoculation in Nigeria Sudan savanna. It showed that biofertilizers could effectively increase soybean yield under furrow irrigation. It also suggested that microbial inoculants could perform during harmattan season. Furthermore, the study showed that selective interactions occur between rhizobial strains and fungal inoculants for soybean development.
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effects of commercial rhizobial and fungal inoculants on promiscuous soybean during harmattan dry season in Sudan savanna.
Variation in Density and Shrinkage between Sawmill and Hand Processed Khaya Senegalensis Woodin Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria
Brennan, G.K. and A.M. Radomiljak, 2014. Preliminary observations, utilization and wood properties of plantation teak (Tectona Grandis) and African mahogany (Khaya Senegalensis) grown near Kununnura, Western Australia. Available from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00049158.1998.10674728 [Accessed 31/10/2014].
Chave, J., 2006. Measuring wood density for tropical forest trees. Sixth framework program (2002-2006). 2-6. Available from http://www.eci.ox.ac.uk/research/ecodynamics/panamazonia/wood_density_english.pdf [Accessed 7/03/2015].
Dinwoodie, J.M., 1981. Timber: Its nature and behavior. 30-40.
Louppe, 2014. Plant resources of tropical Africa: 340-350. Available from http://book.google.com/books?id=-mZQokcEC&pg=PA341&Ipg=PA340&ots=NPfiiWfIZD&focus=viewport&dq=moisture+content+of+khaya+senegalensis&output=html_text [Accessed 02/11/2014].
Olufemi, B. and A.A. Malami, 2011. Density and bending strength characteristics of North Western Nigeria grown eucalyptus camaldulensis in relation to utilization as timber. Research Journal of Forestry, 5(2): 107-114.
Malami, A. A , Zubairu, Y.G , Nafiu, A.K. (2015). Variation in Density and Shrinkage between Sawmill and Hand Processed Khaya Senegalensis Woodin Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 2(3): 77-85. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70/2015.2.3/22.214.171.124
A research on shrinkage and density variation between sawmill and hand processed Khaya senegalensis timber was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the species in service. The wood samples obtained from Kara market Sokoto were cut into standard sizes for the determination of moisture content, density and shrinkage respectively. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. The study reveals that sawmill has an average moisture content of 15.43%, average density of 901.90kg/m3 and volumetric shrinkage of 8.40%. While hand processed Khaya senegalensis has an average moisture content of 15.88%, average density of 812.07kg/m3 and volumetric shrinkage 8.12%. However, density recorded in both sawmill and hand processed Khaya senegalensis wood belongs to high class, suggesting that even the hand processed can serve the low and middle income class satisfactorily and is thus recommended for economic consideration.
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the relationship between sawmill and hand processed wood in Nigeria. It contributes in the existing literature as well as in the wood preference among the small scale wood users (e.g. Local Carpenters) and large scale furniture factories in North-Western Nigeria.
Screening of Some Coffee Arabica Genotypes Against Coffee Wilt Diseases (Gibberella Xylarioides Heim And Saccus) At Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia
Deassus, E., 1954. La tracheomycosis de cafeier. Bull. Sci. Minist. Colon. Sect. Agron. Trop., 5(1): 345–348.
Eshetu, D., G. Teame and A. Girma, 2000. Significance of minor diseases of coffea Arabica L. In Ethiopia: A review. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Control of Coffee Berry Disease (CBD) in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: pp: 58–65.
Fraselle, J., 1950. Observations preliminaires sur une tracheomycosis de coffea robusta. Bulletin Agricole Du Congo Belge, 41(2): 361–372.
Girma, A., 1997. Status and economic importance of fusarium wilt disease of Arabica coffee in Ethiopia. In: Hakiza, G.J., Birkunzira, B. and Musoli, P. (Eds). Proceedings of the First Regional Workshop on Coffee Wilt Disease (Tracheomycosis). International Conference Centre, Kampala, Uganda: pp: 53–61.
Girma, A., 2004. Diversity in pathogenicity and genetics of gibberella xyilarioides (Fusarium Xylarioides) population and resistance of coffee spp. In Ethiopia. Doctoral Dissertation. Hoen Landwirtschaftlichen Fakult’a’ der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universit’a’t zu Bonn: 81.
Girma, A., D. Bieysse and P. Musoli, 2009. Host-pathogen interactions in coffea-gibberella xylarioides pathosystem. In: Coffee wilt disease, flood J (Eds). CAB International. UK: Wallingford. pp: 120 - 136.
Girma, A. and J. Chala, 2008. Resistance levels of Arabica coffee cultivars to coffee berry disease, coffee wilt and leaf rust diseases in Ethiopia. In: Proceedings of the 12th Conference of the Crop Science Society of Ethiopia (CSSE). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Sebil: pp: 92–103.
Girma, A. and H. Hindorf, 2001. Recent investigation on coffee tracheomycosis, gibberella xylarioides (Fusarium Xylarioides) in Ethiopia. In: Proceedings of the 19th International Scientific Conference on Coffee Science (ASIC). Trieste, Italy: pp: 1246–1252.
Girma, A., M. Hulluka and H. Hindorf, 2001. Incidence of tracheomycosis, gibberella xylarioides (Fusarium Xylarioides), on Arabica coffee in Ethiopia. Z. Pflanzenkrankh. Pflanzen. J. Plant Dis. Protect, 108(2): 136-142.
Girma, A. and H. Mengistu, 2000. Cultural characteristics and pathogenicity of gibberelle xyilarioides isolates on coffee. Pest Management Journal of Ethiopia, 4(1): 11- 18.
IAR, 1997. Jimma National Coffee Research Center Progress Report for the Period 1994 (Part 1 Coffee). Melko.
Jimma Agricultural Research Center (JARC), 2011. Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Jimma Agricultural Research Center Progress Report for 2011. Jimma, Ethiopia.
Kranz, J. and M. Mogk, 1973. Gibberella xylarioides Heim & Saccas on Arabica coffee in Ethiopia. Phytopathology Journal, 78(1): 365–366.
Merdassa, E., 1986. A review of coffee diseases and their control in Ethiopia. In: Abate, T. (ed.) Proceedings of the First Ethiopian Crop Protection Symposium. Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: pp: 187–195.
Oduor, G., N. Phiri, G. Hakiza, A. Million, T. Asiimwe, D.L. Kilambo, A. Kalonji-Mbuyi, F. Pinard, S. Simons, S. Nyasse and I. Kebe, 2005. Surveys to establish the spread of coffee wilt disease, fusarium (Gibberella) xylarioides, in Africa. In: Proceedings of the 20th International Scientific Conference on Coffee Science (ASIC). Bangalore, India: pp: 1252–1255.
Pieters, R. and N.A. Van Der Graaff, 1980. Resistance to gibberella xylarioides in coffea Arabica: Evaluation of screening methods and evidence for the horizontal nature of the resistance. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 86(1): 37–43.
Porteres, R., 1959. Valeur agronomique des cafeiers des types Kouilou et Robusta cultivars en Cote d’Ivoire. Café Cacao, 3(1): 3–13.
Rutherford, M., 2006. Current knowledge of coffee wilt disease, a major constraint to coffee production in Africa. Phytopathology Journal, 96(1): 663–666.
SAS Institute, 2001. SAS/STAT 9.2 version User’s guide. Cary, North Carolina: SAS Institute Inc. USA.
Sihen, G., A. Girma, L. Fikre and H. Hindorf, 2012. Coffee wilt disease (Gibberella Xylarioides Heim and Saccas) in forest coffee systems of Southwest and Southeast Ethiopia. Plant Pathol. Plant Pathol. J., 11(1): 10-17.
Stewart, R.B., 1957. Some plant diseases occurring in Kaffa province, imperial Ethiopian college of agriculture and mechanical arts, Alemaya, Ethiopia: 15-16.
Van Der Graaff, N.A. and R. Pieters, 1978. Resistance levels in coffea Arabica L. to gibberella xylarioides and distribution pattern of the disease. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 84(1): 117–120.
Kifle Belachew , Demelash Teferi , Gabisa Gidisa (2015). Screening of Some Coffee Arabica Genotypes Against Coffee Wilt Diseases (Gibberella Xylarioides Heim And Saccus) At Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 2(3): 66-76. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70/2015.2.3/126.96.36.199
It is essential to reduce coffee yield losses due to coffee wilt disease (CWD) in the country through the development and use of genetically resistant coffee varieties to increase and consistently supply Arabica coffee to the fast growing coffee industry. The soil-borne nature of the pathogen and perennial character of coffee have made management of coffee wilt disease difficult through the conventional control approach of ‘uproot and burn infected trees at the spot’. Therefore, longer-term prospects of successful management of coffee wilt disease depend principally upon employing resistant coffee cultivars. With this objective laboratory and field evaluations were conducted to screen some coffee genotypes against coffee wilt disease. Disease severity or mean percent seedling death ranged from 0.00 to 89.96 %. The result showed in lowest seedling death rate, long incubation period and high field survival rate of most accessions indicating resistant reaction to coffee wilt disease. Thus present experiment implied that the potential of obtaining coffee wilt disease resistant coffee variety from these accessions provided that they have other desirable traits like resistance to major coffee diseases, high yield and improved quality.
This study documents coffee genotypes found in coffee gene pool of Ethiopia may hold key to sustianable survival providing traits needed to cope with new pest outbreak and climate change; this underline the importance of systematic evaluation of coffee accessions and utilization of best performing having high yielding, good quality.