International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Online ISSN: 2312-6477
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No. 2

Determination of Phosphorous Fixation Capacity on Alluvium, Sandstone and Shale Soils of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Pages: 105-113
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Determination of Phosphorous Fixation Capacity on Alluvium, Sandstone and Shale Soils of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.82.105.113

Umoh F. O. , Essien O. A. , Ijah C. J. , Sunday, A. E.

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Umoh F. O. , Essien O. A. , Ijah C. J. , Sunday, A. E. (2021). Determination of Phosphorous Fixation Capacity on Alluvium, Sandstone and Shale Soils of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 8(2): 105-113. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.82.105.113
The study was aimed to determine the fixation capacity of phosphorous from three parent materials (Alluvium, Shale and Sandstone) in Akwa Ibom State. A composite soil samples were collected from three representative locations. A treatment solution containing 0, 20, 40 and 80mgl-1 of P prepared from KH2PO4 were added to 20g of soil samples in a cups and incubated for 1, 7, 30 and 60 days. The design was 3 x 4 factorial experiment (3 soil types and 4 rates of P) were fitted into Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. At a set day, the exchangeable and water soluble P were extracted with Bray P – 1 extractant and P not extracted was considered fixed in the soils. The results revealed that the soils were fertile and moderately acidic and than the amount of phosphorous fixed in shale and alluvium soils, decrease with length of incubation and a significant higher fixation were observed in day 1 (60.6 mgkg-1 shale and 50.6mgkg-1 in alluvium). The amount observed in sandstone increased with the length of incubation and a significant amount fixed was observed in 30 days (54.4mgkg-1). The study also revealed that the concentration of P fixed increased with increasing rates of P added in all the soils. Base on the inherent fertility of the soils, the use of crop rotation and organic manure is recommended to maintain its fertility for high productivity.
Contribution/ Originality
The study was aimed to determine the fixation capacity of phosphorous from three parent materials (Alluvium, Shale and Sandstone) in Akwa Ibom State.

Construction of Sustainable Frugal Innovations Index for the Agriculture Sector

Pages: 93-104
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Construction of Sustainable Frugal Innovations Index for the Agriculture Sector

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.82.93.104

Simbarashe Nhokovedzo

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Simbarashe Nhokovedzo (2021). Construction of Sustainable Frugal Innovations Index for the Agriculture Sector. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 8(2): 93-104. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.82.93.104
The proliferation of agriculture innovations require stakeholders to have an accurate measurement scale to screen and select the best inventions for returns maximisation. Agriculture has evolved to become a scientific business hence the need for scientific measurements of agro-innovations and their consequences. The concepts of sustainability and frugality, hence sustainable frugal innovations are trending themes in agriculture. High quality scientific measures of these innovations remain scarce. The purpose of this study has been to develop a Sustainable Frugal Innovations index for use in the agriculture sector. A data collection instrument derived from sustainability and frugality constructs was developed and administered to 450 Agriculture experts across Zimbabwe. Twenty-five (25) constructs were extracted through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), validated and analysed, culminating in a composite Sustainable Frugal Innovation Index.
Contribution/ Originality
This study originates a new index to measure the sustainability and frugality of agriculture-oriented innovations. The index guides innovations design thinkers to be sensitive to sustainability and frugality issues while helping users in making adoption choices.

Effect of Photoperiod on Estrus Cycle and Reproductive Organs in Female African Giant Rat (Cricetomys Gambianus: Waterhouse)

Pages: 87-92
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Effect of Photoperiod on Estrus Cycle and Reproductive Organs in Female African Giant Rat (Cricetomys Gambianus: Waterhouse)

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.82.87.92

Fonou Tadiesse Lavoisier , Fopa Foda Constant , Vemo Narcisse Bertin , Martine Astride Tsambou , Fonkem Severin , Takam Mbogne B , Kenfack Augustave

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Fonou Tadiesse Lavoisier , Fopa Foda Constant , Vemo Narcisse Bertin , Martine Astride Tsambou , Fonkem Severin , Takam Mbogne B , Kenfack Augustave (2021). Effect of Photoperiod on Estrus Cycle and Reproductive Organs in Female African Giant Rat (Cricetomys Gambianus: Waterhouse). International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 8(2): 87-92. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.82.87.92
African giant rat is a prolific animal in its wild condition. Therefore, in captivity, the decrease in productive performances may be due to photoperiod under which they are submitted. This research was carried out to evaluate whether photoperiod affects estrus cycle and reproductive organs in female African giant rat (AGR). Twenty-eight matured female AGR were randomly assigned to four lighting conditions (Light / Dark): 0 L/ 24 D, 12 L/ 12 D, 18 L/ 06 D and 24 L/ 0 D. Animals were individually housed and had free access to food and water. Daily, vaginal smears were taken and observed under a microscope to determine estrus cycle length. After four weeks, twelve animals were sacrificed and sexual organs were collected and weighted. Results showed that in AGR, the length of estrus cycle ranged between 5.5 and 6.4 days. However, this estrus cycle duration showed an upward (p>0.05) trend with a decreasing photoperiod. The weight of ovary and uterus was significantly (p<0.05) low in animals continuous enlightened compared to other treatment groups. Uterus length have dropped by 13.94%, 17.81 % and 9.50 % in animals exposed to 12 h, 18 h and 24 h of light per day respectively compared to those bred in dark condition. Regarding above results, AGR has a regular estrus cycle and the variation of photoperiod does not have effect on the duration of estrus cycle but it is detrimental for reproductive organs.
Contribution/ Originality
This research was carried out to evaluate whether photoperiod affects estrus cycle and reproductive organs in female African giant rat (AGR).

Antifungal Activities of Selected Plant Extracts in In-Vitro Control of Anthracnose and Root Rot Diseases on Cucumber (Cucumis sativus B.)

Pages: 80-86
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Antifungal Activities of Selected Plant Extracts in In-Vitro Control of Anthracnose and Root Rot Diseases on Cucumber (Cucumis sativus B.)

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.82.80.86

Wuraola Funmi Ogundipe , Ayotunde Ajoke Pitan , Oluwafemi Michael Adedire , Adekunle Opeyemi Farinu , Barry Oyeyemi Oyewole

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Abbey, B., Nwachoko, N., & Ikiroma, G. (2017). Nutritional value of cucumber cultivated in three selected states of Nigeria. Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry, 6(3), 1-3. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4172/2161-1009.1000328.

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Wuraola Funmi Ogundipe , Ayotunde Ajoke Pitan , Oluwafemi Michael Adedire , Adekunle Opeyemi Farinu , Barry Oyeyemi Oyewole (2021). Antifungal Activities of Selected Plant Extracts in In-Vitro Control of Anthracnose and Root Rot Diseases on Cucumber (Cucumis sativus B.). International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 8(2): 80-86. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.82.80.86
An in-vitro experiment was conducted at National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology and the Nigeria Agricultural Quarantine Service, Moor plantation, Ibadan. The experiment was carried out to test the antifungal efficacy of some plant extracts (Ageratum conyzoides, Azadirachta indica, Morinda lucida, and Chromolaena odorata) and a chemical fungicide (mancozeb). The mycelial growth inhibition potentials of five concentrations of aqueous plant extracts were assayed at different incubation periods on the growth of Colletotrichum orbiculare and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The experiment was carried out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five replications. A 3 mm mycelial disc of each test fungus was placed at the center of a 9 cm Petri dish containing 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 g of the plant extracts or 0.25g/100mL of mancozeb (synthetic fungicide) in Potato Dextrose Agar. The results obtained revealed that all the plant extracts, at all concentrations, significantly inhibited the growth of these mycopathogens, with 25g C. odorata having the highest percentage inhibition of 70.78% and 73.68% at 48 and 96 hours of incubation on C. orbiculare and L. theobromae respectively. All the selected aqueous extracts inhibited more than 50% C. orbiculare mycelial growth. Antifungal extracts recovered from the selected plants could be further purified to improve and characterize their fungicidal activities in controlling plant diseases. Extracts of plant materials, which are readily available to the farmers, are better alternatives to the commonly used hazardous, synthetic fungicides.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper’s primary contribution is finding that all the plant extracts used against cucumber pathogens had significant inhibitory properties inhibited at different concentrations and incubation periods respectively.

Socio Economic Determinant and Profitability of Bari Mungbean Variety in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh

Pages: 71-79
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Socio Economic Determinant and Profitability of Bari Mungbean Variety in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.82.71.79

Pradip Hajong , Md. Hafijur Rahman , Md. Shahriar Kobir , Suchana Paul

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Pradip Hajong , Md. Hafijur Rahman , Md. Shahriar Kobir , Suchana Paul (2021). Socio Economic Determinant and Profitability of Bari Mungbean Variety in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 8(2): 71-79. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.82.71.79
The study was undertaken to find out the socio economic determinants and profitability of BARI mungbean variety in some selected areas of Bangladesh. The study has been conducted three district viz. Jashore, Jhenaidah and Kushtia during June-July, 2020. A total of 90 farmers, 30 from each district were selected randomly for present study. It was observed that most of the farmer cultivated BARI mung-6 (67.78%), BARI mung-5 (21.11%) and BARI mung-7 (11.11%) in the study areas. BARI mung-6 was the popular variety among the farmers in the study areas as its adaptability to diverse nature and high yield. Total cost of mungbean cultivation was Tk. 46368ha-1, where as variable cost was Tk. 27391ha-1 and fixed cost was Tk. 18977ha-1. Among the cost item highest cost was land preparation cost Tk. 7684ha-1 (16.57%) followed by hired labour Tk. 4927ha-1 (10.63%), Seed Tk. 3584ha-1 (7.73%), pod picking cost Tk. 3487ha-1 (7.52%), pesticide Tk. 3029ha-1 (6.53%), fertilizer Tk. 2740ha-1 (5.91%) etc. Pod picking is important cost at mungbean cultivation and farmer expense averages Tk.12.00/kg of green pod. Women (64%) along with children (31%) were involved in pod harvesting. Average yield of mungbean was 1.030 tonha-1 in the study areas. Average Gross return was Tk. 66966ha-1 and net return was Tk. 20598ha-1. Benefit cost ratio was 1.44 that means the mungbean cultivation was profitable. Due to not synchronous ripening of pod mungbean harvest by the mechanical was not possible. Bad weather, pod picking and insect pest attack was major constraints for mungbean cultivation.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated on the socio-economic determinants and profitability of mungbean cultivation of Bangladesh. This study also document about which variety of mungbean was mostly cultivated in Bangladesh.