International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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No. 2

Determination of Microbiological Quality of White Cheeses Marketed in Afyonkarahisar

Pages: 93-97
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Determination of Microbiological Quality of White Cheeses Marketed in Afyonkarahisar

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.72.93.97

Recep Kara , Ulas Acaroz , Zeki Gurler , Zeyneb Sadigzade Zengin , Ali Soylu

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Recep Kara , Ulas Acaroz , Zeki Gurler , Zeyneb Sadigzade Zengin , Ali Soylu (2020). Determination of Microbiological Quality of White Cheeses Marketed in Afyonkarahisar. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(2): 93-97. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.72.93.97
Cheese is a dairy product with a high nutritional value, a unique flavor, aroma, a long shelf life, and a very different variety. Cheese may be contaminated with harmful microorganisms which may pose a risk to public health during the raw material procurement and production stages. This study investigated the microbiological quality of 60 white cheese samples, marketed in Afyonkarahisar province. The mean levels of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform, Esherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and yeast-mold were determined as 2,1x105, 1,4x104, 2,1x103, 4,5x102, 4,1x102 and 3,8x103 CFU/g, respectively. Also, Escherichia coli was found in 10% (6/60) of the samples between the level of 102-105. Consequently, the microbiological quality was found to be insufficient in some of the samples examined. Therefore, it is recommended to take necessary hygienic measures in raw material supply. In addition, necessary precautions should be taken in all stages of cheese production and attention should be paid to the personnel and equipment hygiene.
Contribution/ Originality
This study investigated the microbiological quality of 60 white cheese samples, marketed in Afyonkarahisar province.

Principal Component Analysis for the Quantification of Soil Horizon Carbon Stocks in Relation to Soil Bulk Density

Pages: 84-92
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Principal Component Analysis for the Quantification of Soil Horizon Carbon Stocks in Relation to Soil Bulk Density

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.72.84.92

Ahukaemere, C.M , Obasi, S.N , Egbuche, C.T , Aririguzu, B.N.

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Ahukaemere, C.M , Obasi, S.N , Egbuche, C.T , Aririguzu, B.N. (2020). Principal Component Analysis for the Quantification of Soil Horizon Carbon Stocks in Relation to Soil Bulk Density. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(2): 84-92. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.72.84.92
Accurate quantification of the changes in carbon stocks of different horizons of the soil profile pit in relation to soil bulk density is a prerequisite to understand the role of soil in the global carbon cycling and climate change mitigation. This paper seeks to draw attention to the carbon storage capacity of the individual soil horizon with particular emphasis on soil bulk density. Three (3) profile pits were dug at equal distance of 100 meters. These profile pits were carefully sampled and analysed in the laboratory using standard methods. Soil data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), regression and coefficient of variation analyses using SPSS. Results showed that A, Ap, AB and Bt were the soil horizons identified in the three different soil profiles at the time of sampling. Bulk density values ranged from 1.43 – 1.66 g cm-3 (mean = 1.49 g cm-3) in profile pit 1, 1.43 – 1.62 g cm-3 (mean = 1.53 g cm-3) in profile pit 2 and 1.15 – 1.64 g cm-3 (mean = 1.40 g cm-3) in profile pit 3 respectively. In profile 1, 2 and 3, the average carbon stock ranged from 4500.6, 3791.67 and 3689.2 g C m-2 respectively. From the PCA results, four variables were observed, they include organic carbon, inorganic carbon, water stable aggregate and carbon stock. The first PC (PC1 = organic carbon) had a value of 0.968, PC2 (inorganic carbon) = 0.968, PC3 (water stable aggregate) = 0.874 and PC4 (carbon stock) = 0.844, indicating positive effects. From the PC plot, the eigenvalues are 3.57, 3.08, 1.78 and 1.10. However, the first PC explains 32.47 % of total variation whiles the second, third and fourth PCs explain 60.47, 76.67 and 86.72 % respectively.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributed substantially to the effective understanding of carbon accumulation in soil in relation to soil compaction; hence, for the comprehension of the exact quantity of carbon accumulated in the soil, accurate measurement of the amount of carbon sequestered by individual natural horizon of the soil profile is imperative.

Characterization and Classification of Cropland-Soils Affected by Erosion in Igbudu Ikwo, Southeastern Nigeria

Pages: 73-83
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Characterization and Classification of Cropland-Soils Affected by Erosion in Igbudu Ikwo, Southeastern Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.72.73.83

Obasi S. N. , Obasi C. C. , Nweke V. , Okolie H.

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Obasi S. N. , Obasi C. C. , Nweke V. , Okolie H. (2020). Characterization and Classification of Cropland-Soils Affected by Erosion in Igbudu Ikwo, Southeastern Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(2): 73-83. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.72.73.83
This research was carried out in Igbudu Ikwo, Ebonyi State in Southeastern Nigeria to investigate and classify some cropland-soils affected by erosion. Three profile pits were dug and samples were collected in their horizons. The soils physico-chemical properties analyzed indicated that all investigated soils were sandy loam (SL), bulk density was high ranging from 1.51, 1.59 and 1.42 gcm-3in pedons 1, 2 and 3 due to the preponderance of high sandiness, although within the acceptable levels (<1.85). Available P was medium (5 – 15 mgkg-1) in pedon 2 and high (>15 mgkg-1) in pedons 1 and 3. Organic matter was medium (2.0 - 4.2%) at pedons 1 and 3 and low < 2% in pedon 2 when critical limits was considered. This low organic matter content is a challenge as the soils of Igbudu Ikwo is already prone to erosion and would need high organic matter content to bind the soils particles together against disintegration by erosion processes. Sodium was very low (< 0.1 gkg-1) while K was low (<0.1 – 0.3 gkg-1 Therefore, the inputs of K fertilizer would be necessary to enhance the productivity of the soils. Calcium and Mg were very low when critical limits were considered (<2 gkg-1) and (<0.5 gkg-1) for Ca and Mg respectively. Adequate soil conservation practices and improvement of soil nutrients should be adopted for the optimum productivity of the soils of Igbudu Ikwo, Ebonyi State. The pedons were classified as Arenic Kandiudults in USDA soil taxonomy and Arenic Lixisols when correlated with WRB for soil resources.
Contribution/ Originality
This work is the first attempt to characterize and classify soils of Igbudu Ikwo in Southeastern Nigeria even though the area is of huge agricultural significance and under erosion threat. This study provided information on soil physic-chemical properties as well as the current nutrient/fertility situation of the soil.

Phototactic Response of Two Spotted Cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus De Geer) to Electric Bulb Light Colours and Types

Pages: 66-72
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Phototactic Response of Two Spotted Cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus De Geer) to Electric Bulb Light Colours and Types

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.72.66.72

Chukwu A. Timothy , Okrikata Emmanuel

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Chukwu A. Timothy , Okrikata Emmanuel (2020). Phototactic Response of Two Spotted Cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus De Geer) to Electric Bulb Light Colours and Types. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(2): 66-72. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.72.66.72
This study examined the phototactic response of two spotted cricket (G. bimaculatus) to incandescent and LED bulb light of different colours. Light traps fitted with 25 Watts incandescent bulbs and 3 Watts Light Emitting Diode (LED) of different colours (red, yellow, green, blue and white) were used. Also included was a control trap. The traps were operated from 1800hr to 2400hr. G. bimaculatus collected were counted and the data subjected to variance analysis. Student Newman Keul’s test was used to separate significantly different means at 5% level of probability. Relationship between light intensity and insect density was assessed by correlation and linear regression analysis. Results indicated that LED had higher mean intensity despite lower wattage and that, Blue colour had the highest mean intensity (736.80 Lux) among the LEDs and white (1094.20 Lux) among the incandescent bulbs. Statistical analysis showed that differences in attractiveness among LED bulb colours were due to random variation (p = 0.17); however was significant (p < 0.001) among incandescent bulbs. Of the total G. bimaculatus collected attracted, 93.7% was by LED bulbs with blue LED bulb alone attracting 57.1%. Light intensity was positively and significantly correlated with density of G. bimaculatus attracted for both LED (r = 0.92, R2 = 84.4%) and incandescent (r = 0.96, R2 = 92.5%) bulbs. Higher attraction of G. bimaculatus to blue coloured LED bulbs could be attributed to preference and/or high light intensity. Blue LED bulbs of higher intensity can thus be used to manipulate G. bimaculatus for man’s benefit.
Contribution/ Originality
The study is one of few that investigated the phototactic response of G. bimaculatus to electric light type and colours. This information is necessary in manipulating the insect’s directional movement behaviour for the benefit of man.

Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance Analysis in Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Genotypes in Northwestern Ethiopia

Pages: 56-65
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Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance Analysis in Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Genotypes in Northwestern Ethiopia

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.72.56.65

Misganaw Ferede , Fisseha Worede

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Misganaw Ferede , Fisseha Worede (2020). Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance Analysis in Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Genotypes in Northwestern Ethiopia. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(2): 56-65. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.72.56.65
Studies on degree of genetic advance as well as rate of genetic progress in grain yield and yield associated traits in bread wheat genotypes over years are limited. Therefore, this study was initiated to explore genetic advance and rate of genetic progress over years in bread wheat breeding program. Twelve bread wheat genotypes released in between 1995-2012 were used as experimental treatments. The experimental treatments were laid out on randomized complete block design with three replications across locations over years. The study was conducted at Adet, Debretabor, Finoteselam, Injibara and Simada in 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons. The traits grain yield, biological yield, spike length, number of seeds per spike and thousand seed weight showed medium genetic and phenotypic variation, higher heritability and medium genetic advance to the mean of the population whereas days to physiological maturity, plant height, and test weight showed negligible in both genotypic and phenotypic variation, higher heritability and negligible genetic advance to the mean of the population. In the genetic advance analysis over years, only thousand seed weight showed positive significant increment while grain yield, biological yield, days to physiological maturity, plant height and test weight showed positive non-significant increment. Meanwhile spike length and number of seeds per spike showed negative non-significant decrement over 18 years. Therefore, breeders should be considered the yield related traits to bring the desired genetic enhancement as well as to develop demanded genotypes in the future bread wheat breeding investigations.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the magnitude of genetic advance of grain yield and yield related traits in bread wheat released varieties in Ethiopia. This study documents is vital to plant breeders to consider the non-significant steady increment of grain yield in bread wheat released varieties over 18 years.