Yasin Gayretli , Akram Ibrahim Mohammed Jawshle , Ayse Dilsat Kus , Mustafa Burak Demiray , Haci Zengin , Ali Sabir (2019). Changes in Certain Agronomic Characteristics of Table Grape Cultivar Alphonse Lavallee’ in Response to Water Deficit under the Different Rootstock Effect. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 6(2): 110-116. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2019.62.110.116
The use of proper rootstocks for precision viticulture under increasing drought condition has a vital role, as the rootstocks vary in genetic response to various environmental stress factors. The present study was performed to investigate agronomic and growth responses of soilless grown four years old ‘Alphonse Lavallée’ vines to contrasting irrigation regime under the effect of different rootstocks. The study, conducted in glasshouse, was consisted of two irrigation levels [full irrigation (FI) and deficit irrigation (DI)] and two grafting combinations of the scion cultivar ‘Alphonse Lavallée’ with 41 B (Vinifera x Berlandieri) and 44-53 M (Riparia x Rupestris). The water holding capacity of soilless culture medium was used for to start FI, while fifty percent of FI was considered as DI. DI resulted in significant reductions in diameter and weight of the clusters of the scion grafted on both rootstocks with higher impact revealed in 41 B grafts. Generally, DI did not markedly impair the biochemical features of the must, except for the vines grafted on 41 B. Limitations in the leaf growth in response to DI were quite similar between the rootstocks. Pruning residue and vine yield reductions under DI were quite higher in vines grafted on 41 B than those of 44-53 M. In conclusion, 44-53 M seems more suitable for a water limited ecosystems on the condition that the lime stress is not a problem. Overall results revealed the differential response of the vines when grafted on different rootstocks.
The papers primary contribution is finding that reveals the importance of proper rootstock to alleviate the adverse effects of water deficit on grapevine growth for sustainable viticulture on the face of climate change.
Tabu-Genetic Algorithm-Based Model for Poultry Feed Formulation
Oluwadare Samuel Adebayo , Gabriel Arome Junior , Ogunrinde Oluwakemi Grace (2019). Tabu-Genetic Algorithm-Based Model for Poultry Feed Formulation. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 6(2): 94-109. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2019.62.94.109
Poultry feed cost represents a significant part of operational cost of poultry production. Consequently, efficient feed formulation practice is required for a sustainable poultry production. Many poultry farmers, employ inefficient methods like rule of thumb and intuition to handle feed formulation problem. This paper presents the report of the development of a feed formulation model which can be used to harness the potentials of locally available feed stuffs toward producing a balanced poultry feed. To achieve this aim, a hybrid Tabu-Genetic Algorithm Model ((TAM) was developed for layers mash feed formulation as case study. Thirteen (13) decision variables and eight (8) constraints were identified and used in the research. Secondary data were collected from the recommended nutrient requirements schedule made available by both the Ondo State Ministry of Agriculture and the Freedom Feed Mill (a local feed miller) in Akure, South-West Nigeria. Based on this data, the optimal solution of the TAM developed for the layers mash produced a balanced feed at reduced cost.
This study uses a hybrid of tabu search (TS) and genetic algorithms (GA) to formulate poultry feed. GA being a global search algorithm is usually slow. The introduction of TS helps to reduce the time taken to arrive at the optimal solution.
Attitude of Youths to Agriculture as Career in Iwo and Aiyedire Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria
Nlerum, F. E. , Babatunde, F. J. (2019). Attitude of Youths to Agriculture as Career in Iwo and Aiyedire Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 6(2): 87-93. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2019.62.87.93
The study determined the attitude of youths to agriculture as a career in Iwo and Aiyedire Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria. The sample size of the study was 90 youths who were randomly selected from the clans of the study area. The questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. Data were analyzed with mean and t-test. Results showed that the attitude of youths to agriculture as a career in the study area was negative as indicated by grand means of 2.44 and 2.47 in Iwo and Aiyedire respectively. The variable with the highest negative response in Iwo with a mean of 2.32 was that agriculture is a gold mine for young entrepreneurs. For Aiyedire the variable with the highest negative response of 2.42 was that agriculture is attractive and decent. The major constraints of the youths to the choice of agriculture as a career in Iwo were insufficient land to start (3.02) and use of crude tools for farming (3.02). Lack of funds to begin (2.91) and insufficient career guidance by agricultural extension workers and rural sociologists (2.79) were the major constraints for youths in Aiyedire. In order to attract more youths into having a positive attitude to agriculture as a career, the study recommends provision for sufficient land and fund for young farmers and engagement of more agricultural extension workers and rural sociologists for career guidance to youths in the study area.
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the attitude of youths to agriculture as a career in Iwo and Aiyedire Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria. Results showed that the attitude of youths to agriculture as a career in the study area was negative.
Evaluation of Eggshell as Organic Fertilizer on Sweet Basil
Wijaya, V. T , Teo, S. S (2019). Evaluation of Eggshell as Organic Fertilizer on Sweet Basil. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 6(2): 79-86. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2019.62.79.86
Food waste, for example, eggshell has been piling up on earth through the years. On the other hand, home-gardening has been a trend that encouraged by the government. The focus in this study is to decrease and use the eggshell waste by utilizing it as fertilizer. Eggshell has potential to become fertilizer for plants due to its nutrient content. The eggshell fertilizer used in this study was in liquid/foliar and solid form. The comparison of eggshell fertilizer and commercial fertilizer effectiveness was conducted to see their compatibility in basil’s growth. The chemical analysis was conducted on eggshell tea fertilizer to see the nutrient content. The result from this study shows that eggshell fertilizer in liquid/foliar form is compatible with commercial fertilizer. The compatibility might be achieved due to nutrients, such as nitrogen, potassium and chloride in eggshell tea fertilizer. However, the eggshell fertilizer in liquid form performed better than in its solid form. Further studies could be focusing on the effectiveness of crushed eggshell fertilizer in a more controlled environment. In conclusion, eggshell fertilizer can be used as an alternative for fertilizer in home-gardening due to its compatibility to commercial fertilizer. The result of this study might contribute to reducing food waste, specifically eggshell waste. The result of this study might lead to more utilization of eggshell waste, especially as fertilizer, thus decrease the cost of using commercial fertilizer.
This study might contribute to supporting household practice in using eggshell as fertilizer as eggshell indeed has significant effect to plants growth.
Agronomic Practices of Maize and Farm Nutrient Status in Bako Tibe District, West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia: Lesson from Agronomic Panel Survey
Tesfaye Balemi , Tolcha Tufa (2019). Agronomic Practices of Maize and Farm Nutrient Status in Bako Tibe District, West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia: Lesson from Agronomic Panel Survey. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 6(2): 61-78. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2019.62.61.78
Agronomic panel survey was conducted in Bako Tibe district to assess current farmers maize agronomic practices and associated actual maize grain yields. The survey was conducted using 100 households. Most of the maize farms (90%) were characterized as having strongly to strongly acidic soils, low to medium SOC, medium to high TN, very low to low av.P, high to very high exch. K, low to medium exch.Ca, and medium to high exch. Mg, high av. Zn and Fe and very high Mn contents. Most farmers (94%) grow improved maize varieties and 80% of them grew a pioneering hybrid Limu and Bako hybrids BH540 and BH543. Most farmers (97%) apply different inorganic fertilizers and of them >70% of them applied NPS+Urea or NPS alone. Farmers rarely retain crop residue. Most farmers (81%) maintain lower plant density at harvest than the recommended density and the density declined from vegetative to harvesting stage. About 99% of the farmers grow sole maize, 57% rotate maize with other. Percent weed cover of the farms were 25% on average but reached as high as 80%. About 87.5%, 86%, 75% of farmers harvested grain yield that was higher than the national, regional and zonal average, respectively. Since most maize farms (90%) were very strongly to strongly acidic, there is a need to apply lime to improve maize productivity and nutrient use efficiency in the area. The poor weed and crop residue management, sole cropping of maize and lower plant densities practiced by farmers were among the gaps observed that potentially reduce maize productivity in the study area unless the extension sector intervenes. However, the current trend improved maize varieties and inorganic fertilizers use is promising and needs to be encouraged for intensification of maize production in the study area.
This paper serves as the most recent study on maize agronomy in Ethiopia in giving sight to the nutrient status of soils of the best maize growing district in the region. It also gives an insight into what the maize agronomic practices (cropping system, crop residue management fertilizer, and improved maize variety use) look like in the distinct.