International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Online ISSN: 2312-6477
Print ISSN: 2313-0393
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No. 2

Effect of Some Botanicals against Termites, Macroterms Spp. (Isoptera: Termitidae) Under Laboratory Conditions

Pages: 52-57
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Effect of Some Botanicals against Termites, Macroterms Spp. (Isoptera: Termitidae) Under Laboratory Conditions

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Citation: 1

Tadele Shiberu , Habtamu Ashagere , Mulugeta Negeri

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  1. Abdurahaman, A., 1990. Foraging activity and control of termites in Western Ethiopia. PhD Thesis. Imperial College, London University.
  2. Abraham, T., 1990. Termites: Problem and possible method of their control in agriculture with reference to the Ethiopian conditions. Proceeding of the 10th Annual Meeting of Ethiopian  Entomologists, February 7- 9, 1990. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. pp: 50 -74.
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Tadele Shiberu , Habtamu Ashagere , Mulugeta Negeri (2014). Effect of Some Botanicals against Termites, Macroterms Spp. (Isoptera: Termitidae) Under Laboratory Conditions. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 1(2): 52-57. DOI:
Seven different plant extracts as botanical insecticides were evaluated for their toxicity against termites in Ethiopia. Aqueous extracts of tobacco leaves (Nicotianatabacum), Birbira seeds (Militia ferruginea) and Endod leaves (Phytolaccadodecandra) were achieved 100% mortality after 24 hours which as did positive control (chloropyrifos 48% E.C). Also Pyrethrum E-185 flowers (Chrysanthemum sp.) caused an average of 91.25% mortality in both workers and soldiers termites with no significant difference between them. Neem seeds (Azadirachtaindica), Kosso seeds (Hageniaabyssinica) and Bisana seeds (Croton macrostachys) were less active than the other botanicals but significantly better than the negative control. Bisana seeds (Croton macrostachys) was less toxic effect among all treatments even after 5 days. All treatments were more effective against workers termites than against soldiers termites. 
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that to identify the promising research output under laboratory condition. Then develop a termite Management Strategic Plan (PMSP) to address the issues of greatest concern for farmers in Western Shawa of Ethiopia. The input gathered at this study provided an important perspective on the pest management products and techniques used in laboratory as well as on the field.

Effect of Different Types of Surfectants on Zinc Efficiency in Spinach Yield

Pages: 45-51
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Effect of Different Types of Surfectants on Zinc Efficiency in Spinach Yield

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Zia-ul-haq Kakar , Sajida Parveen , Sabir Gul Khattak , Zahid Saleem

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  1. Abu-Zreig, M., R.P. Rudra and W.T. Dickinson, 2003. Effect of application of surfactants on hydraulic properties of soils. Biosystems Engineering, 84(3): 363-372
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Zia-ul-haq Kakar , Sajida Parveen , Sabir Gul Khattak , Zahid Saleem (2014). Effect of Different Types of Surfectants on Zinc Efficiency in Spinach Yield. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 1(2): 45-51. DOI:
A field experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar during 2010 to study the effect of different types of surfactants on Zinc efficiency in spinach yield and uptake of other nutrients. The experiment consisted of two different rates of Zinc Sulphate (ZnSO4) (0.5% and 1%) with three different surfactants (Aerial, Bonus and surf excel) and control without ZnSO4 and Surfactant. The experiment was laid out in RCB design with two factors having three replications. The results indicated that the effect of surfactants on Zinc efficiency had a significant effect on the yield of spinach and uptake of Potash, while Phosphorus and Zinc contents of spinach leaves were not significantly different among various treatments. Maximum yield was recorded on 1% ZnSO4 with surf excel (10.417 ton ha-1), followed by 1% ZnSO4 with Bonus, while lowest yield was recorded in 1% ZnSO4 with Aerial (7.77µg g-1) which  was at par with 0.5 % ZnSO4 with Aerial, 0.5% ZnSO4 with Bonus and control. Zinc with different surfactant also significantly affected Potassium (K¬). Maximum (2.3267µg g-1) was recorded on control followed by 0.5% zinc with Aerial, which is similar with 0.5% ZnSO4 with Bonus, while minimum Potash(1.2267µg g-1)  was recorded on 1% zinc with Aerial. The result of Phosphorus (P) and Zinc revealed that there were no statistically differences among difference rate of the zinc application with different surfactants. Among this 0.5% ZnSO4 with Aerial gave maximum (0.844µg g-1) of phosphorus in spinach leaves and minimum (0.7570µg g-1) was at control. Maximum zinc (0.8787µg g-1) was recorded on 0.5% zinc Sulphate, while minimum was recorded on control (0.8007µg g-1) with 0.5 % zinc with Aerial. Among various treatments used, the 1% ZnSO4 with surfactant gave maximum yield of spinach and high percentage mineral contents of spinach leaves.
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Growing Jatropha Curcas and Jatropha Gossypiifolia as a Interculture with Sunflower for Control of Meloidogyne Javanica in Egypt

Pages: 39-44
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Growing Jatropha Curcas and Jatropha Gossypiifolia as a Interculture with Sunflower for Control of Meloidogyne Javanica in Egypt

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Citation: 3

A. E. Ismail

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  1. Abd-Elgawad, M.M.M., 2013. Phytonematode damage, economic threshold and management with special reference to Egypt. Egypt. J. Agronematol, 12(1): 159-176.
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  3. Adebowale, K.O. and C.O. Adedire, 2006. Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of the underutilized jatropha curcas seed oil. African J. Biotechnology, 5(10): 901-906.
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  5. Alam, M.M. and M.S. Jairjpuri, 1990. Natural enemies of nematodes. In: Nematode bio-control (Aspects and Prospects). M S Jairajpuri, M MAlam, I Ahmad (Eds). Delhi, India: CBS Publishers and Distributors. pp: 17-40.
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  9. Claudius, C.A.O., A.E. Aminu and B. Fawole, 2010. Evaluation of plant extracts in the management of root-knot nematode meloidogyne incognita on cowpea. Vignaunguiculata L. (Walp). Mycopath, 8(1): 53-60.
  10. Fassuliotis, G., 1979. Plant breeding for root-knot nematode resistance. F. Lamberti and C. E. Taylor, (Eds). Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne Species). London and New York: Acad. Press. pp: 425-453.
  11. Ganai, M.A., B. Rehman, K. Parihar, M. Asif and M.A. Siddiqui, 2013. Phytotherapeutic approach for the management of meloidogyne incognita affecting abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 46(1): 1-7.
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  15. Ismail, A. and S.A. Hassabo, 2014. Eco-friendly management of reniform nematode, rotylenchulus reniformis using jatropha curcas and jatropha gossypiifolia as an intercropping with sunflower in Egypt. Acta Advances in Agricultural Sciences: In Press, 2(6). Under Pressing.
  16. Ismail, A.E., 2013. Feasibility of growing moringa oleifera as a mix-crop along with tomato for control of meloidogyne incognita and rotylenchulus reniformis in Egypt. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 46(12): 1403-1407.
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  19. Onyeke, C.C. and C.O. Akueshi, 2012. Infectivity and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) chitwood on Africa yam bean, sphenostylisstenocarpa (Hochst Ex. A. Rich) harms accessions as influenced by botanical soil amendments. African J. of Biotechnology, 11(18): 13095-13103.
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  23. Taha, L.S., S.M.M. Ibrahim, R.A. Eid and M.M. Hussein, 2013. Effect of pre-emergence treatment of jatropha curcas L. seeds with some spices extracts on germination, growth, physiological and enzymatic activity. Australian J. Basic and Applied Sciences, 7(1): 556-561.
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  25. Umeh, A. and R.W. Ndana, 2010. Effectiveness of jatropha curcas and jatropha gossypiifolia plant extracts in the control of meloidogyne incognita on okra. International J. Nematology, 20(2): 226-229.
  26. Yassin, M.Y. and A.E. Ismail, 1994. Effect of zinnia elegans as a mix-crop along with tomato against meloidogyne incognita and rotylenchulusreniformis. Anzeiger Fur Schadlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz, 67(6): 41-43.
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A. E. Ismail (2014). Growing Jatropha Curcas and Jatropha Gossypiifolia as a Interculture with Sunflower for Control of Meloidogyne Javanica in Egypt. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 1(2): 39-44. DOI:
The nematicidal potential of both Jatrophacurcas and Jatrophagossypiifoliaseedlings as ainterculture with sunflower cv. Giza 1 (1, 2, 3 and 4 plants per pot) againstMeloidogynejavanica was tested under a screenhouse conditions (30 ± 5 ºC) at the National Research Center, Egypt. The final population of nematodes and their rate of build up as well as the root gall index were significantly affected by the number of Jatropha plants when grown with sunflower together. There was a negative correlation between the number of Jatropha seedlings and the final population of nematode. The lowest nematode final population and rate of build up were determined at the highest number of Jatropha plants (4 plants per pot). The highest number of root gall index (4.7) was found on roots of sunflowergrown alone, while, the lowest numbers (0.8 and 1.3) were found in the roots of sunflower grown with four plants of Jatrophacurcas and Jatrophagossypiifolia; respectively. Effectiveness of Jatrophacurcas was better against M. javanica than Jatrophagossypiifolia. This type of control is considered pollution-free, easy and inexpensive.
Contribution/ Originality