International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2312-6477
Print ISSN: 2313-0393
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No. 1

Application of Agroforestry Techniques in the Management of Bamboo

Pages: 29-34
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Application of Agroforestry Techniques in the Management of Bamboo

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70/2016.3.1/70.1.29.34

Citation: 1

Igbokwe, G. O. , Zubairu, Y. G , A. G. Bello

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  1. American Bamboo Society, 2002. General bamboo information. Available from http://www.bambooorg/GeneralInfo.html.
  2. Hanson, K., 1998. Introduction to ecological design and agroforestry systems at wild thyme farm. Available from http://www.wildthyme.com/agroforestry.html [Accessed 24/08/2014].
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  4. King, K.F.S., 1979. Agroforestry and the utilization of fragile ecosystems. Forest ecology management. Netherlands: Elseiver Scientific Publishing Company Amsterdam.
  5. Leonardo, M., 2000. State of bamboo and rattan development in Tanzania. INBAR Country Paper. Available from http://www.inbar.int/documents/country%20report/Tanzania.htm.
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  8. Mensah, J.K., 1997. Taximetric studies of leave anatomy in some West African grasses. Ph.D Thesis. Botany Dept., Ambrose Alli Univ., Ekpoma.
  9. Ogunwusi, A.A., 2011. Indicative inventory of bamboo availability and utilization in Nigeria. Journal of Research in Industrial Development, 9(2): 1-9.
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  15. RMRDC, 2008. Report of visit to bamboo processing Industry in Delta State. Unpulished Report Submitted to the Raw Materials Research and Development Council.
  16. Wang, X., 2006. Comparative analysis and policy recommendations on developing bamboo resource tenure system in Asia and Africa. Joint Project in Cooperation with INBAR and WFI on bamboo development. 234pp.
  17. Osemeobo, G. J. (1997). Policy on the In-situ conservation of forest resources in Nigeria: In E. A. Oduwaiye. P. C. Obiaga., J. E. Abu (Eds). Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of Forestry Association of Nigeria Held in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, September 22nd-26th 1997.
Igbokwe, G. O. , Zubairu, Y. G , A. G. Bello (2016). Application of Agroforestry Techniques in the Management of Bamboo. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 3(1): 29-34. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70/2016.3.1/70.1.29.34
This paper highlights the potential of Bamboo tree under Agroforestry management practices of the forest industry in Nigeria. Bamboo possesses a dense network of fine roots with a capacity for abundant mycorrhizal association, high rate of Nitrogen fixation, absence of toxic substances in the litter or root residues, it has the capacity to grow on poor soils as well as rapid growth rate even under competing environment. It plays a significant role in the economy by providing livelihood for the rural poor and urban dwellers thereby supporting millions of people. Its richness and diversity both as an environmental and economic species coupled with fast growing ability makes it a profitable Agroforestry tree to be studied for cultivation under the dwindling forest estate in Nigeria. 
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes to the existing literature on Bamboo cultivation, it aims at the important use of Agroforestry techniques in the cultivation of the species, while  highlighting the value of the techniques both in ecological and environmental protection.

Analysis of Consumer Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Maize Food in Swaziland

Pages: 19-28
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Analysis of Consumer Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Maize Food in Swaziland

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70/2016.3.1/70.1.19.28

M.M. Simelane , M.B. Masuku , J.I. Rugambisa , D.M. Earnshaw

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  1. Africa Centre for Biosafety, 2012. Resist corporate attachs on your food sovereirgnty. MA Status Report.
  2. Bailey, R., R.E. Wilonghby and D. Grzywacz, 2014. On trial agricultural biotechnology in Africa, energy, environment and resources., Research paper. Available from https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/files/chathamhouse/field/field_document/20140716BiotechAfrica.pdf?dm_i=1TY5,2N30J,BHZLN4,9NERT,1.
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  4. Chern, W., K. Rickertsen, N. Tsuboi and T. Fu, 2002. Consumer accaptance and willingness to pay for genetically modifies vegetable oil and salmon: A multiple- country assesment. AgBioForum, 5(3): 105-112.
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  10. Kimenju, S., H. Groote, J. Karugla, S. Mbogoh and D. Poland, 2008. Consumer awareness and attitudes towards GM foods in Kenya. Africa Journal of Biotechnology, 4(10): 1066-1075.
  11. Matsebula, Z., 2012. Detection of gnetically modified organisms in maize food production in Matsapha: Implications for GM labelling. Kwaluseni: University of Swaziland.
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M.M. Simelane , M.B. Masuku , J.I. Rugambisa , D.M. Earnshaw (2016). Analysis of Consumer Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Maize Food in Swaziland. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 3(1): 19-28. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70/2016.3.1/70.1.19.28
Genetic modification has been regarded as the new techno-economic standard of the 21st century. There are a number of promised benefits that come with the technology, including that of increase in crop yield, drought tolerance, environmental friendly farming, low food prices, better taste and nutrition among others. However, the use of biotechnology in food production is one of the most controversial subjects in modern agriculture with some scientists and consumer organizations citing possibilities of GM food causing allergies and cancer in human beings among other negative environmental and ethical concerns. This study was an assessment of consumer willingness to pay for GM food in Swaziland. Data were collected across the four regions of the country, sampling 100 respondents in each region making a total sample size of 400 respondents. The respondents were primary or secondary shoppers in their households, who were above the age of 18 and have heard about GMOs. Data were analysed using SPSS version 20. The results show that there were few respondents (32%) who had objective knowledge about GMOs. However, 70% of the respondents believe that GMOs are already being sold in the local markets. A binary logistic regression model was used to analyse willingness to pay for GM maize meal. The variable that were found to be affect consumers’ willingness to pay for GMO maize food were age, knowledge level, health perception, ethical perception and environmental perception about GMOs. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of consumers’ perceptions on genetically modified food. This is the only study in conducted in Swaziland that focused on consumers, while other studies focused on farmers.

Estimation of Export Demand Function for Swazi Sugar: A Panel Data Analysis

Pages: 1-18
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Estimation of Export Demand Function for Swazi Sugar: A Panel Data Analysis

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.70/2016.3.1/70.1.1.18

L.K. Maziya , A.A. Tijani , M.B. Masuku

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  1. Abbas, I.M., 2012. Merchandise export demand function for Egypt: Panel data analysis. Applied Econometrics and International Development, 12(1): 107-116.
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L.K. Maziya , A.A. Tijani , M.B. Masuku (2016). Estimation of Export Demand Function for Swazi Sugar: A Panel Data Analysis. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 3(1): 1-18. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70/2016.3.1/70.1.1.18
Export demand estimates are important for meaningful export forecasts, planning, and policy formulation that can help improve the performance of the sugar subsector in Swaziland. This study estimated the determinants of export demand for Swazi sugar and measured the impact of the EU reform on Swazi sugar export demand. The study used panel data approach by using annual time series data between the periods 1997 and 2012. An LSDV fixed effects model was employed. Export price, Importer GDP and the EU reform were found to be significant in explaining export demand for Swazi sugar. These variables had coefficients -121.069, and -2.682, respectively, whose signs were against the priori expectation except for export price. The EU reform was found to have an overall positive impact to Swazi sugar export demand with coefficient of 120 816. The study also measured elasticities of the explanatory variables to the export demand of Swazi sugar. Export price, foreign income, producer prices and real exchange rate were found to be inelastic with elasticities of 0.35289, 0.00168, 0.04256 and 0.28572, respectively, for all the markets (SACU, EU, USA and COMESA) pooled together. Explanatory variables in the individual markets were found to be highly elastic. The study, therefore, recommended that Swaziland needs to take advantage of the EU reform and invest more on sugar production as it was not negatively affected. Swaziland also needs to negotiate for the quotas abandoned by those countries heavily affected by the EU reform.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by using demand function on the Swaziland Sugar Industry. This is the only study to be undertaken in Swaziland in relation to the Sugar Industry. Hence the study is original.