G. W. Cooke, The control of soil fertility. "Oeganic manures". London: Book Society and Crosby Lockwook & Son Ltd, 1970.
C. A. Hsieh, H. Kuonan, C. F. Hsieh, and K. N. Hsu, "Effect of organic manures on the growth and yield of sweet pepper," Bulletin of Taihung – District Agric. Improvement Station, vol. 42, pp. 1-10, 1994.
D. D. Rey, "Populations of root – knot and reniform nematodes in soil amended with fresh and compoted organic materials," Int. Nematol. Network Newl., vol. 5, pp. 24 -26, 1988.
.A. Gul, M. Saeed, and M. Saifullah, "A mode of action of different substances used for control of Meloidogyne javanica on tobacco and okra in N. W. F. P., Pakistan," Afro- Asian J. Nematology, vol. 1, pp. 23 – 29, 1991.
.A. Gamliel and J. J. Stapleton, "Effect of chicken compost or ammonium phosphate and solarization on pathogen control, rhizosphere microorganisms and lettuce growth," Plant Disease, vol. 77, pp. 886 – 891, 1993.
R. McSorely and R. N. Gallaher, "Cultural practice improve crop tolerance to nematodes," Nematropica, vol. 25, pp. 53 – 60, 1995.
H. Z. Aboul–Eid, A. E. Ismail, and A. A. El- Sayed, "Effects of certain composted plant residues on sunflower melianthus annuus infected with meloidogyne incognita," Egyptian J. of Agronematology, vol. 2, pp. 79 –95, 1998.
A. E. Ismail, R. A. Eid, and W. M. A. El-Nagdi, "Effect of different composts, biofertilizer and olive pomace as soil amendments on rotylenchulus reniformis, growth and chemical analysis of jasmine in Egypt," Journal of Applied Science Research, vol. 2, pp. 909 – 919, 2006.
H. Abouziena, A. Ismail, and S. Radwan, "Effect of bio-organic fertilizers, hoeing and polyethylene mulch on weeds, the citrus nematode (Tylenchulus Semipenetrans) and yield of mandarin trees in Egypt," Acta Advances in Agricultural Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 10-26, 2014.
A. Cottenie, M. Verloo, L. Kiekens, G. Velghe, and R. Camrlynek, Chemical analysis of plants and soils. State Univ., Ghent Belgium, Hand Book, 1982.
M. M. Alam, A. M. Khan, and S. K. Saxena, "Mechanism of control of plant-parasitic nematodes as a result of the application of organic amendments to the soil. V. Role of phenolic compounds," Indian J. Nematol., vol. 4, pp. 93 – 96, 1979.
A. Ismail and M. M. Mohamed, "Nematicidal potentiality of some animal manures combined with urea against meloidogyne arenaria and growth and productivity of sugar beet under field conditions," J. of Nematology, vol. 30, pp. 57-65, 2012.
M. Alam, M. Ahmed, and A. Khan, "Effect of organic amendments on the growth and chemical composition of tomato, eggplant and chilli and their susceptibility to attack by Meloidogyne incognita," Plant and Soil, vol. 57, pp. 231-236, 1980.
P. C. Trivedi and K. R. Barker, "Management of nematodes by cultural practices," Nematropica, vol. 16, pp. 213 – 236, 1986.
W. R. Novaretti, J. O. Carderan, J. Starbelli, and E. Amorim, "Effect of compost application alone or in combination with nematicide and mineral fertilizers on nematode control and productivity of sugarcane," Nematologia Brasileira, vol. 13, pp. 93 – 107, 1989.
G. R. Stirling, Biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes. Wallingford, UK: CAB Int, 1991.
H. H. Hendy, H. I. El-Nagar, A. A. Osman, and A. A. Farahat, "The role of biological agents in regulating plant parasitic nematodes infecting tomato plants," Egypt. J Appl. Sci., vol. 9, pp. 313 – 330, 1994.
O. A. Egunjobi, "Effect of cocoa pod husks as soil amendments ob owpea, infestation by Meloidogyne sp," Pak. J. Nematol., vol. 3, pp. 99 – 103, 1985.
S. K. Abadir, A. E. Ismail, and A. M. Kheir, "Efficacy of soil amendments with plant waste in the control of meloidogyne incognita on sunflower," Pak. J. Nematol., vol. 14, pp. 95-100, 1996.
R. L. Cook and K. F. Baker, The nature and practice of biological control of plant pathogens. St. Paul, Minn: American Phytopathological Society, 1983.
J. W. Waceke and S. W. Waudo, "Effect of soil amendments on pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita on okra," Int. J. Pest Management, vol. 39, pp. 385 – 389, 1993.
H. Abd–El-Khair, W. M. A. El-Nagdi, O. M. Hafez, and H. H. Ameen, "Effect of four composts on meloidogyne incognita and fusarium solani infesting superior grapevine and their influence on yield production and quality," Nematologia Mediterranea, vol. 37, pp. 54–63, 2009.
A. Ismail, "Effect of soil amendments with some hardwood barks on reproduction of rotylenchulus reniformis and growth of sunflower," Pak. J. Nematol., vol. 16, pp. 137 – 144, 1998.
A. E. Ismail, S. A. Mahouz, M. M. Mohamed, R. A. Hassan, and L. M. Abou-Setta, "Environmentally safe substances for controlling the root-knot nematode, meloidogyne arenaria infested potato and their influence on yield and alkaloidal content in Egypt," Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, vol. 47, pp. 600 – 609, 2014.
A. L. Saleh and A. Abd – Elfattah, "Response of nutrients uptake and dry weight of sorghum to application of FYM; poultry manure and their combination alone or with chemical fertilizers," Egypt. J. Appl. Sci., vol. 12, pp. 217 – 228, 1997.
A. E. Ismail and S. A. Hasabo, "Evaluation of some commercial biofertilizers, plant nutrients and a biocide against root-knot nematode, meloidogyne incognita infecting sunflower," Pak. J. Nematol., vol. 18, pp. 39 – 49, 2000.
A. E. Ismail, M. M. Abd-El-Migeed, R. A. Azza, and M. S. Awaad, "Meloidogyne incognita suppression and changes of grapevine yield properties determined by waste residues from jojoba, black seed oil extraction and slow release of nitrogen fertilizer," Pak. J Nematol., vol. 29, pp. 187 – 205, 2011.
S. A. Abolusoro, M. O. Abe, P. F. Abolusoro, and N. B. Lzuogu, "Control of nematode disease of eggplant (Solanum Aethiopicum) using manure," Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, vol. 48, pp. 188-193, 2015.
A.E. Ismail (2015). Management of Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Javanica Infecting Sunflower by Some Composted Plant or Animal Residues as Soil Amendments in Egypt. Review of Plant Studies, 2(2): 9-18. DOI: 10.18488/journal.69/2015.2.2/220.127.116.11
Soil amendment with organic composts of plant or animal residues i.e. banana tree (BT), maize stalks (MS), sawdust (SD), rice straw (RS) and cattle dung (CD) at rates 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 % w/w showed significant (P≤ 0.05 and / or 0.01) reduction in numbers of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica larvae in soil, galls and egg-masses on roots as well as the nematode build-up as compared to control. All dosages of BT compost were most effective in reducing numbers of the nematode stages, galls, egg masses and the nematode build-up followed by 1.0% of both MS and SD composts. All doses of organic composts significantly (P≤ 0.05 and / or 0.01) increased growth of sunflower cv. Giza 1. and improvement of sunflower cv. Giza 1 growth. Generally, there were positive significant correlations between doses of composts and reduction percentages in number of larvae in soil, galls, egg-masses and rate of build-up, and (r = 0.9884, 1.045, 0.9844 and 0.9677; respectively) as well as increases in sunflower growth parameters in terms of lengths, fresh and dry weights of both shoots and roots (r = 0.9977, 1.0, 1.0, 0.9391, 0.9967 and 1.0; respectively). Also, there were positive significant relationship between shoot dry weight and each of N, P and K uptake by sunflower shoot (r = 0.9876, 1.0 and 0.9445; respectively), between root dry weight and N uptake (r = 1.0).