Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2312-6418
Print ISSN: 2313-3716
Quick Submission    Login/Submit/Track

No. 4

Village Chicken Production and Marketing in West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia

Pages: 64-73
Find References

Finding References


Village Chicken Production and Marketing in West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search
Cite

DOI: 10.18488/journal.68/2016.3.4/68.4.64.73

Citation: 2

Habtemariam Assefa , Aklilu Bogale , Berhanu Gebremedhin , Zeleke Mekuriaw , Teshome Derso , Yigzaw Dessalegn , Azage Tegegne , Dirk Hoekstra

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

  1. G. Melese and B. Melkamu, "Assessment of chicken production under farmers management condition in East Gojam Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia," Greener Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, vol. 1, pp. 001-010, 2014.
  2. H. Addisu, M. Hailu, and W. Zewdu, "Indigenous chicken production system and breeding practice in North Wollo, Amhara Region, Ethiopia," Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences, vol. 1, p. 108, 2013.
  3. D. Tadelle, T. Million, Y. Alemu, and K. J. Peters, "Village chicken production systems in Ethiopia: 1. Flock characteristics and performance," 2003.
  4. L. Samson and B. Endalew, "Survey on village based chicken production and utilization system in mid Rift Valley of Oromia, Ethiopia," Global Veterinaria, vol. 5, pp. 198-203, 2010.
  5. H. Matiwos, A. Negassi, and D. Solomon, "Evaluation of socio-economic role and challenges of rural poultry keeping in NoleKabba Woreda, Western Wollega, Ethiopia," Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, vol. 1, pp. 33-39, 2013.
  6. CSA, Report on livestock and livestock characteristics vol. 2. Addis Ababa: Central Statistic Agency, 2013.
  7. M. Fisseha, T. Azage, and D. Tadelle, Indigenous chicken production and marketing systems in Ethiopia: Characteristics and opportunities for market-oriented development, ILRI/IPMS (Improving Productivity and Market Success) of Ethiopian Farmers Project, Working Paper No. 24. Nairobi, Kenya, 2010.
  8. G. Addis and B. Malede, "Chicken production systems, performance and associated constraints in North Gondar Zone, Ethiopia," Journal of Fisheries & Livestock Production, vol. 2, p. 115, 2014.
  9. G. Tilahun and M. Zeleke, "Diagnosis and intervention plans for West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region." Retrieved from http://lives-ethiopia.wikispaces.com/file/view/West+Gojam+zonal+intervention+plan+report-+final.pdf. [Accessed March, 20, 2015], 2013.
  10. N. Asfaw and J. Mohammad, "Commercial off-take of cattle under smallholder mixed crop-livestock production systemin Ethiopia, its determinants and implications for improving live animal supply for export abattoirs," presented at the International Conference on African Development Archives, Paper No. 129, 2007.
  11. Y. Nebiyu, T. Berhan, and B. Kelay, "Characterization of village chicken production performance under scavenging system in Halaba District of Southern," Ethiopian Veterinary Journal, vol. 17, pp. 69-80, 2013.
  12. M. Meseret, D. Solomon, and D. Tadelle, "Marketing system, socio economic role and intra household dynamics of indigenous chicken in Gomma Wereda, Jimma Zone, Ethiopia," Livestock Research for Rural Development, vol. 23, 2011.
  13. M. Fisseha, N. Mohammad, and Z. Getenet, "Characterization of village chicken production and marketing system in selected Districts of North West of Amhara Region, Ethiopia," African Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 9, pp. 3091-3097, 2014.
  14. G. Mekonnen, "Characterization of smallholder poultry production and marketing system of Dale, Wonsho and Loka Abaya Weredas of Southern Ethiopia," M.Sc. Thesis, Hawassa University, Ethiopia, 2007.
  15. M. Wondu, M. Mehiret, and T. Berhan, "Characterization of urban poultry production system in Northern Gondar, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia," Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, vol. 4, pp. 192-198, 2013.
  16. [N. Asfaw and M. Jabbar, "Livestock ownership, commercial off-take rates and their determinants in Ethiopia," Research Report 9. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya, 2008.
Habtemariam Assefa , Aklilu Bogale , Berhanu Gebremedhin , Zeleke Mekuriaw , Teshome Derso , Yigzaw Dessalegn , Azage Tegegne , Dirk Hoekstra (2016). Village Chicken Production and Marketing in West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 3(4): 64-73. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68/2016.3.4/68.4.64.73
Chicken production in West Gojjam zone was characterized by using indigenous chicken with low input-output level. Despite its diverse socio economic role for smallholder farmers, production and productivity of village chicken was very low. As the result, chicken producers were not benefited from the sector. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of characterizing chicken rearing practice, flock dynamics and determining the off-take rate of village chicken production system. It was conducted in West Gojjam Zone of Ethiopia. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select representative respondents. A total of 500 farmers were interviewed. In the study area, the average numbers of local and exotic chickens kept by smallholder producers were 8.44+0.42 and 0.49+0.10chicken, respectively with the overall mean 8.93+0.42chicken. The flock structure was highly dominated by young chicks (3.82+0.28) and hen (2.47+0.09). The average chicken migrated into the flock per household per annum was 10.32+ 0.80 birds, whereas the outflow from the flock was 16.62+0.85birds. The number of chicken was higher at the middle of the year than the beginning and end of the year. On average, 2.9+0.12 layer chickens were kept per household. From which, in average 307.2+ 20.2 eggs were produced from local and improved breed in a year. Marketing in the district and PA were important marketing places for egg and live birds with the off-take rate of 34.94%. To improve chicken production in the study area, adaptive improved chicken breed should be introduced. Strategic vaccination, semi scavenging practices should be introduced and promoted in order to reduce chicken mortality. Capacity building through training and intensive follow up should also be made in order to enhance the level of awareness of smallholders on improved small scale poultry keeping practices.

Contribution/ Originality
This research contributes a lot in filling village chicken production knowledge gap in West Gojjam Zone. It reveals that how village chickens are reared, the nature of flock dynamics, chicken mortality rate and its cause, how to calculate off-take rate in chicken production, egg production and its purpose. Finally, it also gives insight the marketing place of live chicken and egg.   

Synthesis of Biodiesel from Tropical Almond (Terminalia Catappa) Seed Oil

Pages: 57-63
Find References

Finding References


Synthesis of Biodiesel from Tropical Almond (Terminalia Catappa) Seed Oil

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search
Cite

DOI: 10.18488/journal.68/2016.3.4/68.4.57.63

Orhevba, B.A , Adebayo, S. E , Salihu, A.O

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

  1. G. H. Biego, A. G. Konan, T. E. Douati, and L. P. Kouadio, "Physicochemical quality of kernels from Terminalia catappa L. and sensory evaluation of the concocted kernels," Sustainable Agriculture Research, vol. 1, pp. 1-6, 2012.
  2. L. A. Thomson and B. Evans, "Terminalia catappa (Tropical Almond)," Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry, vol. 2, pp. 1-20, 2006.
  3. O. B. Adu, M. Omojufehinsi, M. O. Esanboro, D. A. Abe, A. O. Shofolahan, E. Uzodinma, K. Badmus, and O. Martins, "Effect of processing on the quality, composition and antioxidant properties of Terminalia catappa (Indian Almond) seed oil," African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, vol. 13, pp. 7662 - 7678, 2013.
  4. L. Matos, J. M. Nzikou, A. Kimbonguila, C. B. Ndangui, N. P. G. Pambou-Tobi, A. A. Abena, T. H. Silou, J. Scher, and S. Desobry, "Composition and nutritional properties of seeds and oil from Terminalia catappa L.," Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 1, pp. 72-77, 2009.
  5. S. Singh and D. Singh, "Biodiesel production through the use of different sources and characterization of oils and their esters as the substitute of diesel: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 14, pp. 200-216, 2010.
  6. L. Wang, "Properties of manchurian apricot (Prunus Mandshurica Skv.) and Siberian apricot (Prunus Sibirica L.) seed kernel oils and evaluation as biodiesel feedstocks," Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 50, pp. 838-843, 2013.
  7. P. Chen, C. Yanling, D. Shaobo, L. Xiangyang, H. Guangwei, and R. Ruan, "Utilization of almond residues," International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, vol. 3, pp. 1-18, 2010.
  8. M. Dorado, Raw materials to produce low-cost biodiesel. In: A. Nag (Ed.) Biofuels refining and performance. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008.
  9. A. International, Official methods of analysis of AOAC international, 18th ed. USA: AOAC International, 2005.
  10. V. A. Barku, H. Nyarko, and P. Dordunu, "Studies on the physicochemical characteristics, microbial load and storage stability of oil from Indian almond nut (Terminalia Catappa L.)," Studies, vol. 8, pp. 9 - 17, 2012.
  11. E. Bello and M. Agge, "Biodiesel production from ground nut oil," Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Science, vol. 3, pp. 276-280, 2012.
  12. S. Jaichandar and K. Annamalai, "The status of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engine-An overview," Journal of Sustainable Energy & Environment, vol. 2, pp. 71-75, 2011.
  13. S. Romano, P. A. Sorichetti, W. H. Lee, and V. G. Cho, Estimation of methanol content in biodiesel by measurements of electrical properties and flash point determination. Handbook of sustainable energy. New York: NOVA Science Publishers Inc., 2011.
  14. A. Ofoefule, C. Ibeto, U. Okoro, and O. Onukwuli, "Biodiesel production from tigernut (Cyperus Esculentus) oil and characterization of its blend with petro-diesel," Phy. Rev. Res. Int. l, vol. 3, pp. 145-153, 2013.
Orhevba, B.A , Adebayo, S. E , Salihu, A.O (2016). Synthesis of Biodiesel from Tropical Almond (Terminalia Catappa) Seed Oil. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 3(4): 57-63. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68/2016.3.4/68.4.57.63
The objective of this study is extraction and characterization of oil from tropical almond seed, trans-esterification and characterization of tropical almond seed oil biodiesel. All experiments were replicated and average results were evaluated. The moisture content of the seed was 2.04 %; the oil was extracted using solvent method and the percentage of oil yield was 50.33 %. The physicochemical properties of the oil obtained during the experiment were; density (0.90 g/cm3), specific gravity (0.89), kinematic viscosity at 40 oC (14.1 mPa.s), cloud point (16.0 oC), pour point (11.5 oC), smoke point (173.0 oC), flash point (208.0 oC), fire point (271.0 oC), saponification value (199.19 mgKOH/g), acid value (3.37mgKOH/g), FFA (1.68 mgKOH/g), Peroxide value (5.0 meq/kg), and Iodine value (98.0 gI2/100g). The oil was trans-esterified to biodiesel using oil to alcohol ratio of 4:1 and KOH as catalyst. The percentage of biodiesel yield was 75.0 % averagely. The physicochemical properties of the biodiesel obtained during the experiment were; density (0.96g/cm3), specific gravity (0.90), kinematic viscosity at 40 oC (5.20 mPa.s), kinematic viscosity at 100 oC (4.30 mPa.s) cloud point (7.0 oC), pour point (6.0 oC), smoke point (161.0 oC), flash point (186.0 oC), fire point (216.0 oC), saponification value (182.4 mgKOH/g), acid value (0.84 mgKOH/g), FFA (0.42 mgKOH/g), Peroxide value (8.0 meq/kg), and Iodine value (109.0 gI2/100g, the calculated cetane number was 51.70. The result obtained for the physicochemical properties of the biodiesel were compared with the ASTM standard and it was concluded that tropical almond seed oil is a good feedstock for biodiesel production since the result is within ASTM specification standard.

Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated new sources or avenue of novel underutilized sources. Biodiesel production from tropical almond seed oil will be a reasonable alternative to petroleum diesel since the available petroleum based fuels are exhaustive. Biodiesel will be of great advantage as this will reduce the adverse effect caused by the petroleum diesel, which include global warming, air pollution and emission of sulphuric compound. This study will also ensure there is good utilization of tropical almond seed.