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Habtemariam Assefa , Aklilu Bogale , Berhanu Gebremedhin , Zeleke Mekuriaw , Teshome Derso , Yigzaw Dessalegn , Azage Tegegne , Dirk Hoekstra (2016). Village Chicken Production and Marketing in West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 3(4): 64-73. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68/2016.3.4/22.214.171.124
Chicken production in West Gojjam zone was characterized by using indigenous chicken with low input-output level. Despite its diverse socio economic role for smallholder farmers, production and productivity of village chicken was very low. As the result, chicken producers were not benefited from the sector. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of characterizing chicken rearing practice, flock dynamics and determining the off-take rate of village chicken production system. It was conducted in West Gojjam Zone of Ethiopia. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select representative respondents. A total of 500 farmers were interviewed. In the study area, the average numbers of local and exotic chickens kept by smallholder producers were 8.44+0.42 and 0.49+0.10chicken, respectively with the overall mean 8.93+0.42chicken. The flock structure was highly dominated by young chicks (3.82+0.28) and hen (2.47+0.09). The average chicken migrated into the flock per household per annum was 10.32+ 0.80 birds, whereas the outflow from the flock was 16.62+0.85birds. The number of chicken was higher at the middle of the year than the beginning and end of the year. On average, 2.9+0.12 layer chickens were kept per household. From which, in average 307.2+ 20.2 eggs were produced from local and improved breed in a year. Marketing in the district and PA were important marketing places for egg and live birds with the off-take rate of 34.94%. To improve chicken production in the study area, adaptive improved chicken breed should be introduced. Strategic vaccination, semi scavenging practices should be introduced and promoted in order to reduce chicken mortality. Capacity building through training and intensive follow up should also be made in order to enhance the level of awareness of smallholders on improved small scale poultry keeping practices.
This research contributes a lot in filling village chicken production knowledge gap in West Gojjam Zone. It reveals that how village chickens are reared, the nature of flock dynamics, chicken mortality rate and its cause, how to calculate off-take rate in chicken production, egg production and its purpose. Finally, it also gives insight the marketing place of live chicken and egg.
Synthesis of Biodiesel from Tropical Almond (Terminalia Catappa) Seed Oil
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Orhevba, B.A , Adebayo, S. E , Salihu, A.O (2016). Synthesis of Biodiesel from Tropical Almond (Terminalia Catappa) Seed Oil. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 3(4): 57-63. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68/2016.3.4/126.96.36.199
The objective of this study is extraction and characterization of oil from tropical almond seed, trans-esterification and characterization of tropical almond seed oil biodiesel. All experiments were replicated and average results were evaluated. The moisture content of the seed was 2.04 %; the oil was extracted using solvent method and the percentage of oil yield was 50.33 %. The physicochemical properties of the oil obtained during the experiment were; density (0.90 g/cm3), specific gravity (0.89), kinematic viscosity at 40 oC (14.1 mPa.s), cloud point (16.0 oC), pour point (11.5 oC), smoke point (173.0 oC), flash point (208.0 oC), fire point (271.0 oC), saponification value (199.19 mgKOH/g), acid value (3.37mgKOH/g), FFA (1.68 mgKOH/g), Peroxide value (5.0 meq/kg), and Iodine value (98.0 gI2/100g). The oil was trans-esterified to biodiesel using oil to alcohol ratio of 4:1 and KOH as catalyst. The percentage of biodiesel yield was 75.0 % averagely. The physicochemical properties of the biodiesel obtained during the experiment were; density (0.96g/cm3), specific gravity (0.90), kinematic viscosity at 40 oC (5.20 mPa.s), kinematic viscosity at 100 oC (4.30 mPa.s) cloud point (7.0 oC), pour point (6.0 oC), smoke point (161.0 oC), flash point (186.0 oC), fire point (216.0 oC), saponification value (182.4 mgKOH/g), acid value (0.84 mgKOH/g), FFA (0.42 mgKOH/g), Peroxide value (8.0 meq/kg), and Iodine value (109.0 gI2/100g, the calculated cetane number was 51.70. The result obtained for the physicochemical properties of the biodiesel were compared with the ASTM standard and it was concluded that tropical almond seed oil is a good feedstock for biodiesel production since the result is within ASTM specification standard.
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated new sources or avenue of novel underutilized sources. Biodiesel production from tropical almond seed oil will be a reasonable alternative to petroleum diesel since the available petroleum based fuels are exhaustive. Biodiesel will be of great advantage as this will reduce the adverse effect caused by the petroleum diesel, which include global warming, air pollution and emission of sulphuric compound. This study will also ensure there is good utilization of tropical almond seed.