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Abiotic stresses limit crop growth at different growth stages resulting low yield of rice. Molecular characterization of parental materials gives precise information on the extent of genetic diversity exists between them. A set of 60 SSRs randomly distributed over 12 chromosomes were used to analyze eight cultivars intend to be used as parent in breeding programs to address cold and drought tolerance, and nutritional quality of rice. A total of 300 alleles were detected across the cultivars for 51 polymophic markers with 5.88 alleles per loci. On average 30.6% of the genotypes shared a common allele at any given locus. UPGMA cluster analysis showed that 67% common alleles were shared by the cultivars. The cultivars were clearly grouped into two distinct clusters at 67.0% genetic similarity. Hbj. BVI showing high tolerance to cold stress at seedling stage differed from cold susceptible BR1, BRRI dhan28 and BRRI dhan29 by 33% alleles while BR18 that showed moderately cold tolerance differed by 29.0 - 29.9% alleles which indicated that only 3-4% alleles difference caused higher cold tolerance in Hbj. BVI. The moderate genetic distance between cold tolerant Hbj. BVI and high yielding BRRI dhan28 and BRRI dhan29 indicated that there is higher possibility of obtaining high yielding cold tolerant segregants from the crosses between them. On the other hand, Kalobokri, which had 31.7 mg zinc a kilogram of polished rice differed by 33.0% alleles from the drought tolerant rainfed low varieties BRRI dhan56 and BRRI dhan57 having moderate level of zinc (~20 mg/kg), which also indicated that crosses between them might produce progenies with higher nutritional quality under drought environment.
This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the genetic distance between the parental lines that are intended to be used in the breeding program to address abiotic stresses, like drought and cold tolerance with high yield potential and enhanced nutritional quality, particularly zinc content in rice.
Stage Specific Life Table of Invasive Pest Mealybug, Phenacoccus Solenopsis (Tinsley) Under Cotton Field Conditions
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The field study was conducted on at the experimental field of SALU – Khairpur during, 2016. Two hundred eggs were kept for each replication on cotton plants grown in large pots. When eggs hatched, the life table parameters such as; apparent mortality, survival fraction, mortality survivor ratio, indispensable mortality and k-value were studied. Natural enemies such as; Chrysoperla carneae, lady bird beetles, Spiders and Anasius bambawallae were found active on the potted and surrounding cotton plants in the field conditions. The total mortality in egg stage went to 19.00%. The mortality percentages of 1st instars due to natural enemies recorded was (18.73%) while, in 2nd instars (13.13%) mortality was recorded. The total combined mortality in 1st and 2nd instars was recorded (26.34%) and (15.64%), respectively. However, the mortality of 3rd instars and pupae due to parasitoids were recorded (7.28%) with the total mortality (10.26%) and the total mortality (54.83%) in cotton potted plants was recorded. Consequently, (45.17%) of adults survived with male and female ratio as ♂1:6.52♀, respectively. The highest apparent mortality was (26.34%), indispensable mortality (96.89) and k-value (0.13) recorded in 1st instar. The maximum survival fraction was recorded (0.90) in third instars/pupae with the total k-value generations (0.35). The study revealed that the predators and parasitoids should be encouraged in cotton field when mealybugs appear, because predators are highly voracious feeder of 1st and 2nd instars whereas; the parasitoid, A. bambawallae is known as main controlling natural enemy of cotton mealybug.
This study documents over the biological parameters of cotton mealybug to check its, egg laying, mortality, survivor ratio, total life span, fecundity, fertility, different life stages, predators activity and aboitic factors with the different equations about this vigorous pest under cotton field conditions.
An Assessment of the Market Structure of Sesame among Farmers, Wholesalers and Retailers in Nasarawa State, Nigeria
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The study assessed principally the level of equality/inequality in the sales distribution of sesame among farmers, wholesalers and retailers. The sampling procedure used involved a random selection of 120 sesame farmers, 40 wholesalers, and 60 retailers proportionately drawn from the three agricultural zones of Nasarawa State. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire. Tools of data analysis were descriptive statistics, regression technique and measures of market concentration such as Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient and Herfindahl index. The results which showed Gini coefficient index values of 0.686, 0.331 and 0.589 and Herfindahl index values of 0.115, 0.442 and 0.118 for farmers, wholesalers, and retailers, respectively, were indications of varying levels of inequality in the distribution of sesame sales income and the existence of some monopolistic forces in sesame market. Socio-economic variables which affected sales income (the main determinant of market concentration) positively and significantly (p≤0.01) were education, total value of investment and non-farm sources of income. As farmers and middlemen are indispensably interdependent, deliberate policy intervention is required in areas such as adequate formal credit, diversification of enterprises and human capital development to make them (farmers and middlemen) more competitive in the rapidly evolving global economy.
The study is one of very few studies which have investigated the existence or otherwise of monopolistic forces in the marketing of farm products using a combination of analytical tools such as Gini coefficient, Herfindahl index, and Lorenz curve.