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Temesgen Gashaw , Tigabu Dinkayoh (2015). Land Use/Land Cover Dynamics in Hulet Wogedamea Kebele, Northern Ethiopia. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 2(1): 36-41. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68/2015.2.1/188.8.131.52
The objective of the study was to evaluate the land use/land cover dynamics of Hulet Wogedamea Kebele, Northern Ethiopia. Landsat 5 TM 1985 and Landsat 7 ETM+ 2011 were used for the study. Global positioning system and topographical maps of scale 1:50,000 for ground verification; field observations to take ground control points; 20 farming household’s interview to get additional information; ERDAS Imagine 9.1 and ArcGIS 9.3 software for satellite image processing and data analysis were used. The collected data was analyzed mainly using quantitative method. However, results of farming household’s interview were discussed in line with the quantitative data. The result reveled that there was an expansion of cultivated land and degraded land by 12.8 and 2.58 ha per year respectively from 1985 to 2011 at the expense of forest, shrub and grazing lands. Thus, proper cultivation of the land with appropriate implementation of soil fertility management measures and afforestation and reforestation activities are recommended.
This paper is original and contributes for the existing literature in Northern Ethiopia by taking Hulet Wogedamea Kebele.
Economics of Sheep Production in Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State Nigeria
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Baba M.D. , J.S. Dabai , A.M. Sakaba , I.D. Sanchi (2015). Economics of Sheep Production in Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State Nigeria. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 2(1): 31-35. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68/2015.2.1/.184.108.40.206
This study was carried out to investigate the profitability of sheep production in Zuru local government area of Kebbi State. It examined the costs and returns of sheep production as well as problems encountered in sheep production in the study area. Data were collected from a total of 100 respondents using simple random sampling technique in 2014. Descriptive statistics and farm budgeting technique were used in the analysis of data. The costs and returns analysis indicated that, variable cost constituted 69.83% of the total cost of sheep production in the study area, while the fixed cost constituted 30.17%. However, the average total cost of production was N307, 491.57, the average total revenue was N376, 312.00, gross margin was N161, 572.43 and the net income was N88, 820.43 indicating that sheep production was profitable. Despite the profitability of sheep production, sheep farmers identified feed problem (92%) as their major problem. It is therefore, concluded that sheep production in the study area was profitable. With this level of profitability in sheep enterprise, it is recommended that this finding be disseminated to all practicing and potential sheep farmers in the study area and other communities. It is also recommended that more farmers in the study area and elsewhere should go into sheep production because of its profitability. There should also be practical application of new knowledge to sheep under traditional husbandry system in the study area.
This study contributes in the existing literature on sheep production and livestock economics. Sheep production as an approach to economic growth could be relevant in improving the quality of life of farmers. Information on the economics of sheep production is necessary in view of the emerging food crisis in Nigeria.
Evaluation of Some Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. [Walp]) Genotypes for Stability Of Performance Over 4 Years
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Olayiwola M.O. , P.A.S. Soremi , K.A Okeleye (2015). Evaluation of Some Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. [Walp]) Genotypes for Stability Of Performance Over 4 Years. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 2(1): 22-30. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68/2015.2.1/220.127.116.11
Genotype × environment interaction (GEI) plays a significant role in determining the desirability or superiority of a genotype, hence the need to evaluate genotypes over wide range of environment. Seven improved cowpea genotypes were evaluated in four environments (years); the late seasons of 2009, 2010. 2011 and 2012 to determine their desirability based on mean grain yield and stability in Abeokuta South-western Nigeria using the Genotype+Genotype×environment (GGE) biplot. IT98K-573-2-1 had the highest mean grain yield while IFE-98-12 had the lowest. There was highly significant Genotype × Environment Interaction on seed yield (p<0.001) indicating the need for GEI analysis. The GGE biplot identified three mega-environments viz AB10 and AB11 as mega-environment 1, AB09 as the mega-environment 2 and AB12 as the third. IT98K-573-2-1, IT04K-333-2 and IT04K-227-4 were the most responsive genotypes in mega-environments 1, 2 and 3 respectively. IT04K-227-4, IT04K-333-2, IT98K-573-1-1and IT98K-573-2-1 were identified to have performed above average while IT99K-1060, LDP10-OBR1 and IFE-98-12 yielded below average. LDP10-OBR1 was the most stable genotype but was low yielding. IT98K-573-2-1 was selected as the best combiner of high yield and stability and the most desirable for Abeokuta South-western Nigeria. AB10 was identified as the best among the test environments.
This study documents the responses of improved cowpea genotypes to different environments. Genotype by environment interaction continues to have high implications in plant breeding. IT98K-573-2-1 was identified as a well buffered genotype and therefore desirable for selection for further improvement.
Production Efficiency of Sesame in Selamago District of South Omo Zone, Southern Ethiopia
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Ermiyas Mekonnen , Endrias Geta , Belaineh Legesse (2015). Production Efficiency of Sesame in Selamago District of South Omo Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 2(1): 8-21. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68/2015.2.1/18.104.22.168
The aim of the present study was to measure the levels of technical, allocative and economic efficiencies of sesame producer and identify factors affecting them in selamago district of south Omo zone, Southern Ethiopia. The study was based on the cross – sectional data collected in 2011/12 production season from 120 randomly selected farm households. Stochastic production frontier model was used to estimate technical, allocative and economic efficiency levels, whereas Tobit model was used to identify factors affecting efficiency levels. The results indicated that there was substantial amount of inefficiency in sesame production in the study area. Accordingly, the mean technical, allocative and economic efficiencies of sample households were 67.1 per cent, 67.25 per cent and 45.14 percent respectively. Labor and seed were the variables that positively affected the production of sesame. Results of the Tobit model revealed that soil fertility, non farm income and credit access positively and significantly affected TE. Soil fertility had positive and significant effect on AE. On the other hand experience in sesame production, distance of sesame farm form residence, non farm income and extension contact affected AE negatively and significantly. Soil fertility, non farm income and credit access had positive and significant impact on EE. However, extension contact affected EE negatively and significantly. These indicate that there is a room to increase the efficiency in sesame production of the study area. Therefore, government authorities and other concerned bodies should take into consideration the above mentioned socio economic and institutional factors to improve productivity of sesame in the study area.
In this paper the production efficiency of farmers in the study area and the factors that affect their efficiency in sesame production are identified. This study can be used as a reference for fellow researchers who are interested in the area of production economics specifically that deals with production efficiency.
The Extent of Finger Millet Production in South Omo Zone in the Case of South Ari Woreda
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Wedajo Gebre (2015). The Extent of Finger Millet Production in South Omo Zone in the Case of South Ari Woreda. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 2(1): 1-7. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68/2015.2.1/22.214.171.124
In Ethiopia finger millet occupies 4% of the total area allocated to cereals (nearly half a million hectares) each year and also contributes about 4% to the total annual cereal grain production in the country. The production area increased from 342,120 ha to 368,999 ha with an increase of 7.3%, and the productivity increased from 3,769,290 to 5,241,911 quintals with a proportion of 28%. Six varieties (Tadesse, Padet, Wama, Baruda, Degu and Boneya) have been identified for cultivation to date. Though the varieties were initially released for cultivation in the sub-humid and mid altitude areas, their inadvertent introduction in to low rainfall areas found new adaptation zones. The production of these varieties has expanded to dry low altitude areas including regions where the crop was previously unknown. As a result of frequent drought, farmers in the dry rift valley region of Ethiopia widely adopted the variety that it is currently grown as one of the most important crops in this region. Therefore this study was initiated to discuss the production of finger millet in South Omo Zone, Ari woreda and generates information on the extent of finger millet production which is useful in designing suitable approaches for identifying gaps and intervening production constrains in the target area.The study areas comprised major finger millet producing kebeles of Ari woreda. Ten kebeles were selected systematically. Six year data on finger millet production and productivity was taken from woreda and each kebele. Data were collected through key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and questionnaires during a three-month period .Research in south omo zone, southern research institute and several national programs have resulted in considerable progress and identification of some improved finger millet varieties. The production of the crop in the study area is increasing.