Aschauer, D.A., 1989. Is public expenditure productive. Journal of Monetary Economics, 23:177-200.
Barro, R., 1991. Economic growth in a cross section of countries. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106(2): 407-443.
Martin, N.A., 1997. International trader: More trouble could be in the cards for Hong Kong‘s Jittery stock market. Barren‘s, 77(39): 8-9.
Meijerink, G. and P. Roza, 2007. The role of agriculture in economic development. Markets chains and sustainable police papers. Wageningen.
Clainos Chidoko , Innocent Sachirarwe (2015). An Analysis of the Impact of Investment on Economic Growth in Zimbabwe. Review of Knowledge Economy, 2(2): 93-98. DOI: 10.18488/journal.67/2015.2.2/18.104.22.168
The study seeks to find out the impact of investment on economic growth from 1980 to 2013. The model used is a linear function. It has been discovered that investment positively affect economic growth in Zimbabwe. It is recommended that the investment authorities should check and monitor the magnitude of the contribution made by investment in Zimbabwe to adequately provide investment incentives to those with the resources to do so.
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the impact of investment on economic growth in Zimbabwe spanning a longer period from 1980 to 2013. The study utilised private investment, government investment and foreign direct investment as the main components of investment in the study.
Equity Implications of the Universal Primary Education Funding Mechanisms in Uganda
Abagi, O. and G. Odipo, 1997. Efficiency of primary education in Kenya: Situational analysis and implications for educational reform. Nairobi Kenya: Institute of Policy Analysis and Research.
Ayot, H.O. and H. Briggs, 1992. Economics of education. 1st Edn., Nairobi, Kenya: Educational Research and Publications.
Bategeka, L. and N. Okurut, 2005. Universal primary education. Uganda. Policy brief 10. London: Overseas Development Institute.
Hillman, A. and E. Jenkner, 2004. Educating children in poor countries. Economic Issue NO. 33. IMF Publication.
Itaaga, N., 2013. The role of stakeholders and Its implications on the internal efficiency of the Universal primary education programme in Eastern Uganda. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Makerere University.
Kagoda, A.M., 2011. Gender sensitivity among head teachers and teachers in primary education in Uganda. A case for Kamuli District. In Mach.H, Falrenwald.F and Bauer. Q.J. (Eds) Gender and education. Towards new strategies of leadership and power. Berlin: Verlagsgrupee Geog von Holtzbrinck.
Lerotholi, L., 2001. Tuition fees in primary and secondary education in Lesotho. The levels and implications for access, equity, and efficiency. UNESCO Paris: Published by International Institute for Educational Planning.
Ministry of Education and Sports, 2004. Universal primary education (UPE). Kampala,Uganda: Enhancing UPE: A Stakeholder’s Handbook.
Natarajan, S., 1993. Introduction to economics of education. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers.
Psacharopoulos, G., 1994. Returns to investment in education: A global update. World Development Elsevier, 22: 1325 – 1342.
Ssekamwa, J.C., 1997. History and development of education in Uganda. Kampala: Fountain Publishers.
Kiggundu Musoke Muhammad , Nicholas Itaaga (2015). Equity Implications of the Universal Primary Education Funding Mechanisms in Uganda. Review of Knowledge Economy, 2(2): 80-92. DOI: 10.18488/journal.67/2015.2.2/22.214.171.124
The study sought to establish whether or not the way Universal Primary Education (UPE) is funded in Uganda is equitable among the different socioeconomic groups, gender, religions and disability. This was based on the view that if the expenditure on education is to benefit the entire society, it must be equitably distributed. Furthermore, specific groups have special requirements that need specific attention. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design and was majorly qualitative. Key stakeholders interviewed included officials at the Ministry of Education and Sports headquarters, District Education Officials, head teachers, teachers, parents, pupils, and opinion leaders in ten (10) districts in Uganda. The study findings revealed that although some elements of equity were evident, there were no deliberate efforts by the financiers of the UPE program to ensure equity. The study also revealed measures like increased funding, sensitization of key stakeholders, linkages between sectors and needs assessment for appropriate intervention in order to ensure equity in funding. The study recommended that the Government of Uganda and other stakeholders must put in place deliberate provisions to ensure equitable funding of the UPE program.
NB: The national currency in Uganda is the Uganda Shilling (Shs.) and the exchange rate at the time of conducting the study was 1US$ = 2,650 Shs.
The paper’s primary contribution is the finding that although Universal Primary Education in Uganda is public funded it is not equitably distributed among identified groups like the male versus females, the rich and the poor, various religious groups; and funding bodies have not taken deliberate steps to ensure equity.
Introduction to the Application of Organic Polymers for Photovoltaic Devices Organic Electronics Approach: Critical Review
Bundgaard, E. and F.C. Krebs, 2007. Low band gap polymers for organic photovoltaics. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 91(11): 954-985. DOI 10.1016/j.solmat.2007.01.015 DTU Orbit (22/12/14).
Gu¨Nes, S., H. Neugebauer and N.S. Sariciftci, 2007. Conjugated polymer-based organic solar cells, linz institute of organic solar cells (LIOS). Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria. Chem. Rev, 107: 1324-1338.
Günes, S., H. Neugebauer and N.S. Sariciftci, 2007. Conjugated polymer-based organic solar cells. Chem. Rev, 107: 1324-1338.
Kiesboms, R., R. Menon and K. Lee, 2001. Handbook of advanced electronic and photonic materials and devices. 8th Edn., H. S. Nalwa. San Diego: Academic Press. pp: 38–47.
Kroon, R., M. Lenes, J.C. Hummelen, P.W.M. Blom and B.D. Boer, 2008. Small band gap polymers for organic solar cells. Taylor & Francis Group. Polymer Reviews, 48: 531–582.
Mammo, W., S. Admassie, A. Gadisa, F. Zhang, O. Inganäs and M.R. Andersson, 2007. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 91: 1010.
Mozer, A.J. and N.S. Sariciftci, 2006. Conjugated polymer photovoltaic devices and materials, Linz institute for organic solar cells (LIOS), physical chemistry. Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenbergerstr. 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria. C. R. Chimie, 9: 568–577.
Peng, Q., K. Park, T. Lin, M. Durstock and J.L. Dai, 2008. Donor-acceptor conjugated copolymers for photovoltaic applications: Tuning the open circuit voltage by adjusting the donor/acceptor ratio. Phys. Chem. B, 112: 2801-2808.
Sariciftci, N.S. and A.J. Heeger, 1996. Photophysics, charge separation, and device applications of conjugated polymer/fullerene composites. In handbook of organic conductive molecules and polymers. Nalwa, H. S. (Eds.): John Wiley & Sons. pp: 414.
Simon, J. and J.J. Andre, 1985. Molecular semiconductors, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Brabec, C. J., et al., (Eds.). Organic photovoltaics: Concepts and realization. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, (2003).
Thompson, C. and M.J. Frchet, 2008. Polymer–fullerene composite solar cells, Wiley-VCH Verlag. Angew.Chem.Int.Ed, 47: 58–77.
Winder, C. and N.S. Sariciftci, 2004. Low band gap polymers for photon harvesting in bulk hetero junction solar cells, linz institute for organic solar cells (LIOS). Physical chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenbergerstr. 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria, J. Mater. Chem, 14: 1077–1086.
Ye, Q. and C. Chi, Conjugated polymers for organic solar cells,department of chemistry. Singapore: National University of Singapore.
Tsegaye Tadesse (2015). Introduction to the Application of Organic Polymers for Photovoltaic Devices Organic Electronics Approach: Critical Review. Review of Knowledge Economy, 2(2): 65-79. DOI: 10.18488/journal.67/2015.2.2/126.96.36.199
Photovoltaic effect is the emergence of a voltage between electrodes attached to a solid or liquid system up on shining light on to this system. Conjugated polymer is a molecular entity whose structure is represented as a system of alternating single and double bonds which give rise to their semi-conductor properties. Conjugated polymers are used for photovoltaic devices because, Intrinsically stable up on photoexcitation with visible light, High absorption cross-section for photon harvesting, Tunable band gap with in the entire visible spectral range and High yield of charge generation when mixed with electron acceptor materials. The important physical process in the energy conversion process that take place in polymers for photovoltaic cells are; Absorption of a photon of light by photoactive material and generation of excitons, diffusion of excitons in conjugated polymers, dissociation of charge carriers (electron-hole pair) at the donor-acceptor interface in to free carriers, transport of free carriers towards the electrodes, and extraction of the charge carriers at the respective electrode interfaces. The efficiency of converting solar to electrical energy by a solar cell depends on the band gap of the light absorbing semiconductor. Band gap (Eg) is the difference in energy between the HOMO and LUMO and there by the maximum amount of energy required for an excitation or is the energy difference between the edges of the conduction band and valence band. The power conversion efficiency is a function of band gap. For device architectures of conjugated polymer based photovoltaic cells; there are three types Single layer photovoltaic cell, Bilayer hetero junction photovoltaic cell and Bulk hetero junction Photovoltaic cell.
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that introducing to the application of organic polymers for photovoltaic devices, that is the application of conjugated organic polymers in electronics or the relation between organic chemistry and electronics which in turn contributes to the investigation of new materials for environmentally friend renewable energy.
Projection and Resources Adjustment in Cassava Production in Oyo State, Nigeria
Agriculture in Nigeria, 2010. World Bank Published Report, 729: 52-68.
Agriculture System in Africa, 2000. United Nation and World Bank Policy Dialogged Report, 35: 41-54.
Badmus, A. and M. Ariyo, 2011. Forecast area and production of maize in Nigeria. Contemporary Issues Journal, 2(10): 32-37.
Box, G.E.P. and G.M. Jenkins, 1970. Time series analysis: Forecasting and control. San Francisco, C.A: Holden Day.
Falak, S. and A. Eatzaz, 2008. Forecasting wheat production in Pakistan. Lahore J. Econ, 3(1): 57-85.
Food Security Scenario in Africa, 2000. World Bank Published Report, 456: 32-39.
Kirtti, A. and T. Goyari, 2013. Agricultural productivity trends in India: Sustainability issue. Agricultural Economics Review, 1(2): 71-88.
Najeeb, I., B. Khuda, M. Asif and S.A. Abid, 2005. Use of ARIMA Model for forecasting wheat area and production in Pakistan. Journal of Agricultural and Social Sciences, 1(2): 120- 122.
National Survey on Agricultural Indicators at a Glance, 2011. National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) Report Bulletin, 2: 12-13.
Oyo State Land Survey, 1990. Ministry of Land and Water Resources Report, 84: 10-25.
Suleiman, N. and S. Sarong, 2012. Forecasting milled rice production in Ghana using box-jenkins approach. International Journal of Agricultural Management & Development, 2(2): 79-84.
Survey on Agricultural Status, 2012. Oyo State Ministry of Information Report, 12(5): 35-98.
United Nations Center for Human Settlements (UNCHS – Habitat), 1994. Report. 15.
Olayiwola O. Olaniyi (2015). Projection and Resources Adjustment in Cassava Production in Oyo State, Nigeria. Review of Knowledge Economy, 2(2): 54-64. DOI: 10.18488/journal.67/2015.2.2/188.8.131.52
Projection was made by the use of ARIMA model, contribution of area and yield towards cassava production was done by decomposition analysis and adjustment in cropping pattern was estimated by calculating index level. Forecast result showed that maximum value of area is 843.0 thousand hectares which would be expected in 2013-14 while minimum value is 826.0 thousand hectares which is likely to occur by the year 2025-26. Production forecast revealed maximum value of 1407.0 thousand tons which would be expected by 2025-26 and the minimum value of 1181.0 thousand tons in 2012-13.
The paper contributes the first logical analysis to determine optimization levels which give maximum return with least cost minimization.