International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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No. 10

A Socio-Economical Perspective for a Holistic Management of Temporary Watersheds in Central Mexico Based on a Simple Mathematical Model for Decision-Makers

Pages: 206-226
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A Socio-Economical Perspective for a Holistic Management of Temporary Watersheds in Central Mexico Based on a Simple Mathematical Model for Decision-Makers

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Pedro Joaquin Gutierrez-Yurrita

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Pedro Joaquin Gutierrez-Yurrita (2014). A Socio-Economical Perspective for a Holistic Management of Temporary Watersheds in Central Mexico Based on a Simple Mathematical Model for Decision-Makers. International Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 2(10): 206-226. DOI:
This paper deals with the development of a new holistic math model to manage watersheds in Central Mexico. Hydrological resources in this medium-dry North-American region supply water to more than 49 million people. In addition, this region is considered as one of the most eco-diverse regions in the world. However, the high population density exerts great pressure on water resources in the area, leading to the edge of extinction to most of its biodiversity. Many mathematical models for estimating environmental flows have been developed, yet no model is truly holistic, even integrated, by not taking into account a variable of extreme importance to the ecological functioning of the watershed, its marked seasonal nature (temporality). Due to this lack of information on how to manage temporary rivers, most managers use conventional indices to estimate environmental flows or at best, use the standard Integrated River Basin Management model developed by http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/rivers/irbm/ [1] though it is only for rivers with permanent flow. The aim of this paper is to present a reflection on the management of temporary flows, presenting a mathematical model that helps decision makers in their operation programs. The holism of the third culture is taken as the paradigm framework to build the model. It should be noted that an important aspect of the model is its simplicity, since it is to be used by people with little knowledge in mathematics and thus easy to take, and common to all the rivers of the region data.


Contribution/ Originality
Seasonality of watersheds is an important factor as a source of biodiversity.
Regulated rivers can be modeled as seasonal rivers.
The proposed model presents diagnostic and control indicators easy to measure.
This is the first model that really promotes a holistic management for seasonal basins.

The Use of Two New Formulations of Ocimum Canum Sims and Cymbopogon Schoenanthus L. In The Control of Amitermes Evuncifer Silvestri (Termitidae: Termitinae), in Togo

Pages: 195-205
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The Use of Two New Formulations of Ocimum Canum Sims and Cymbopogon Schoenanthus L. In The Control of Amitermes Evuncifer Silvestri (Termitidae: Termitinae), in Togo

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Gbenyedji Koami Bezo Jean Norbert , Nyamador Wolali Seth , Kasseney Boris Dodji , Nebie Charles Honorat Roger , Ketoh Koffivi Guillaume , Anani Koto Klo Esse , Glitho Adole Isabelle

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Gbenyedji Koami Bezo Jean Norbert , Nyamador Wolali Seth , Kasseney Boris Dodji , Nebie Charles Honorat Roger , Ketoh Koffivi Guillaume , Anani Koto Klo Esse , Glitho Adole Isabelle (2014). The Use of Two New Formulations of Ocimum Canum Sims and Cymbopogon Schoenanthus L. In The Control of Amitermes Evuncifer Silvestri (Termitidae: Termitinae), in Togo. International Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 2(10): 195-205. DOI:
Today, the main concern of farmers and scientists is finding an alternative to the use of chemical pesticides in pest management, environmental pollution prevention and poisoning of the population. For this purpose, more and more studies are being carried out on biopesticides from plants used in local pharmacopoeia for the management of insect pests of crops and food stocks. In this study, the effect of a mixture of essential oil of Ocimum canum Sims with starch and that of Cymbopogon schoenanthus with starch were separately evaluated against Amitermes evuncifer Silvestri, one of the main pestiferous termites in Togo. These formulations were prepared from each plant at six different concentrations with and without sawdust. They were effective and caused significant mortality of Amitermes evuncifer. The formulation of essential oil without sawdust was more effective than that with sawdust. For the formulation without sawdust, 75 and 38% mortality respectively were recorded with C. schoenantus and O. canum at a dose of 0.5 mg/cm2, while 100% mortality was recorded at 2 mg/cm2 for both plants in both formulations. However, between the two plants, the formulations made from S. schoenantus were more effective on A. evuncifer than those made from O. canum. These new formulations made from the essential oils and starch could be used as biopesticide to control pestiferous insects in the field.


Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the efficiency of a new formulation made of a mixture of essential oils (Ocimum canum and Cymbopogon schoenantus) with starch, against pestiferous termite.

Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination of Dzindi River, In Limpopo Province, South Africa

Pages: 185-194
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Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination of Dzindi River, In Limpopo Province, South Africa

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Citation: 22

Joshua N. Edokpayi , John O. Odiyo , Samuel O. Olasoji

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Joshua N. Edokpayi , John O. Odiyo , Samuel O. Olasoji (2014). Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination of Dzindi River, In Limpopo Province, South Africa. International Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 2(10): 185-194. DOI:
This study was carried out to evaluate the current water quality of Dzindi River in Limpopo Province, South Africa. pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS) and turbidity were measured using a pH meter, EC and TDS multimeter and a turbidimeter respectively. The water samples were collected from four different sampling points along the river and digested with concentrated nitric acid in a fume cupboard. The concentrations of the selected heavy metals (Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) were determined in triplicate using a Perkin Elmer Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The pH values (7.47-7.53) from the sampling sites were lower than what is recommended by the Department of Water and Forestry (DWAF) guidelines of South Africa. The EC and TDS values obtained (30-133 mS/cm and 20.10-89.11 mg/l) were within the recommended guideline of DWAF. Turbidity values (4.61-25.82 NTU) exceeded the recommended level of ≤1NTU for domestic water use. The average concentrations of all the metals investigated were higher than the recommended levels of DWAF for the protection of aquatic life and domestic water use except copper. The order of heavy metal contamination followed the trend: Fe (1.33 mg/l) >Al (0.3 mg/l)>Mn (0.15 mg/l) >Zn (0.10 mg/l) >Cr (0.06 mg/l)>Cu (0.05 mg/l)> Pb (0.03 mg/l). Results from this investigation reveals that Dzindi River is contaminated with heavy metals and should not be used for domestic purposes without treatment due to the probable health effects it may have on the user, but it is suitable for irrigation purposes.


Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated heavy metal concentrations in Dzindi River and gives a broader baseline information on the physicochemical parameters investigated. 

Human Infecting Parasitic Worms, In Cockroaches from Odau in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

Pages: 176-184
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Human Infecting Parasitic Worms, In Cockroaches from Odau in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

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Citation: 4

E. J. Okafor-Elenwo , A. C. Elenwo

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E. J. Okafor-Elenwo , A. C. Elenwo (2014). Human Infecting Parasitic Worms, In Cockroaches from Odau in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. International Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 2(10): 176-184. DOI:
Parasitic worms of difference species were obtained from cockroaches examined in Odau, a community in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. One thousand (1000) cockroaches were caught from households (one hundred), randomly selected within the community. The helminths were identified as Trichuris trichuria.(N=313; 2O.6%); Ancylostoma duodenale (N=368; 24.4); Ascaris lumbricoides (N=571;36.6%); Strongylloides stecoralis(N=173;11.4%); and Trichostrongylous sp.(N=93; 6.1%). Seven hundred and ninety one (79.1%) out of the cockroaches, had parasitic helminths. The total number of parasites isolated was one thousand, five hundred and eighteen (1,518). The rate of occurrence of Ascaris sp. in the cockroaches was significantly higher (p<0.05) compare to the other parasites. The abundance of helminth parasitic species in the cockroaches  examined in the present study indicate that the environment may not be in good sanitary condition. If this level of association between cockroaches and helminth parasites is maintained, the transmission of parasitic agents/diseases especially to humans in the area will increase.


Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated cockroaches (Periplaneta  americana), in line with its association with helminths, found to be parasitic to the humans especially, in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. The parasites extracted from the cockroaches can cause diseases which are easily transmitted to people within the community, especially, where the sanitary condition is low.  

Wood Production and Management of Woody Species in Homegardens Agroforestry: The Case of Smallholder Farmers in Gimbo District, South West Ethiopia

Pages: 165-175
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Wood Production and Management of Woody Species in Homegardens Agroforestry: The Case of Smallholder Farmers in Gimbo District, South West Ethiopia

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Citation: 3

Getahun Yakob , Zebene Asfaw , Solomon Zewdie

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Getahun Yakob , Zebene Asfaw , Solomon Zewdie (2014). Wood Production and Management of Woody Species in Homegardens Agroforestry: The Case of Smallholder Farmers in Gimbo District, South West Ethiopia. International Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 2(10): 165-175. DOI:
Homegardens are defined as a system of production of diverse plant species, which can be adjacent to household or slightly further away and is easily accessible. Wood production and management systems of Kaffa homegardens are poorly known. The study was conducted to assess the wood production and farmers’ strategy of managing woody species in Gimbo district, South West Ethiopia. A complete homegarden woody species inventory was carried out to collect vegetation data, while simple random sampling was used to select sample households within wealth categories. From two purposely selected sites, a total of 120 households were selected for interview and vegetation data collection. Semi-structured interviews, direct observation and focus group discussions were employed to gather information on farmers’ strategy of managing woody species. The DBH of all trees and shrubs ≥ 5cm was measured. The mean number of stems per garden was 34, ranging between 6 to 99. Wealth status of the household influenced the wood production of homegardens. At all studied villages, the largest number of stems per garden was recorded on gardens of wealthy households. Various trees and shrubs are managed on the same piece of land. About 92% of the respondents have retained different woody species in their homegardens while converting the original forest to settlement areas. Some woody species like Millettia ferruginea, Vernonia amygdalina, Ficus sur, Croton macrostachyus and Sapium ellipticum were more frequently retained than others. In general,  the reasons for planting woody species were income generation, shade and fruit, in increasing importance order. About 96 % of the respondents did practice different types of management activities for the woody species they owned. The common management practices carried out in the homegardens were thinning, pruning, fertilizing, watering, protection, coppicing and lopping. However, only 2% of the respondents did practice compost preparation. Diseases of coffee and fruit trees were the major problem faced by the farmers in woody species management. Therefore, it is recommended that appropriate intervention either through research or extension has to take place in order to reduce the impacts. 
Contribution/ Originality
Moreover, this study is one of very few studies which have investigated relevant information in order to ensure the conservation, management and sustainable utilization of woody resources in particular and the biodiversity as a whole.