International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Online ISSN: 2312-0916
Print ISSN: 2312-5772
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No. 11

Challenges and Survival Strategies for Women in Small Scale Catering Business: A Case Study of Siyaso Magaba, Mbare

Pages: 372-381
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Challenges and Survival Strategies for Women in Small Scale Catering Business: A Case Study of Siyaso Magaba, Mbare

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Alice Z Zinyemba , Tatenda Changamire

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  1. Chen, M.A., J. Vanek and M. Carr, 2004. Mainstreaming informal employment and gendering poverty reduction: A handbook for policy makers and other stakeholders. Wakefield, UK: Commonwealth Secretariat.
  2. Kuada, J., 2009. Gender, social networks, and entrepreneurship in Ghana. Journal of African Business, 10(1): 85-103.
  3. Luebker, M., 2008. Employment, unemployment and informality in Zimbabwe: Concepts and data for coherent policy-making. Issues Paper No. 32 and Integration Working Paper No. 90. Harare and Geneva: International Labour Organisation.
  4. Zinyemba, A.Z., 2013. Leadership challenges for women in the hospitality and financial services in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences, 2(4): 50–57.
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Alice Z Zinyemba , Tatenda Changamire (2014). Challenges and Survival Strategies for Women in Small Scale Catering Business: A Case Study of Siyaso Magaba, Mbare. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 1(11): 372-381. DOI:
Small businesses in the informal sector are increasingly being recognized as generating meaningful and sustainable employment opportunities for women in Zimbabwe. However, women operating small business face many challenges that negatively impact on the viability of those businesses. In order to mitigate those challenges women in small catering business at Siyaso Magaba home industrial area in Mbare Township in Harare (simply known as Siyaso), employ a number of strategies that enable them to survive and continue operating. This paper presents findings from a research carried out at Siyaso to identify those challenges and survival strategies. The challenges include lack of funding, lack of business management skills, stiff competition, stringent requirements for registering a business, defaulting customers and difficulties in balancing work and domestic commitments. These are the challenges that informal business operators have to grapple with in Zimbabwe in general. Over and above these challenges women at Siyaso also face specific challenges that include poor infrastructure in the business area, unaffordable rentals and lack of basic amenities.  In order for the women operating catering business at Siyaso to survive they apply a number of strategies which include borrowing money from relatives at no interest being charged, taking turns to give each member an agreed amount of money every month, purchasing s applies on a daily basis instead of buying in bulk, purchasing food items on credit, borrowing from loan sharks and serving extras to clients as a way of luring them from competition. The study concludes by suggesting that in order for the businesses to improve their performance the women should form themselves into a cooperative and register it. They should continue offering a wide variety of meals to customers so as to compete better. The Harare City Council should establish more premises which can be rented at affordable rates from which women can conduct their catering businesses. The city council should also improve amenities at Siyaso Magaba home industrial area.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the challenges that women running small businesses in Zimbabwe face. It documents those challenges and the strategies that the women use in order for them to survive in the harsh economic environment as they try to empower themselves.

The Biodiesel Market in Brazil and the Prospects for the Sector

Pages: 358-371
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The Biodiesel Market in Brazil and the Prospects for the Sector

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Evandro Luis Verdi , Rosecler Maschio Gilioli , Maria Emilia Camargo , Gabriela Zanandrea , Marta Elisete Ventura da Motta , Uiliam Hahn Biegelmeyer

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  2. ANP - Agência Nacional do Petróleo, 2012. Gás natural e biocombustíveis – ANP. Boletim Mensal do Biodiesel/ Setembro. Available from http://www.anp.gov.br/?pg=63697&m=&t1=&t2=&t3=&t4=&ar=&ps=&cachebust=1358962302964 [Accessed 15 out 2012].
  3. Bergmann, J.C., D.D. Tupinambã, O.Y.A. Costa, J.R.M. Almeida, C.C. Barreto and B.F. E Quirino, 2013. Biodiesel production in Brazil and alternative biomass feedstocks. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 21: 411-420.
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  8. Kralj, A.K., 2008. Heat integration between two biodiesel processes using a simple method. Energ Fuel, 22(3): 1972–1979.
  9. Marconi, M. and E. Lakatos, 2006. Técnicas de pesquisa: Planejamento e execução de pesquisas, amostragens e técnicas de pesquisa e elaboração, análise e interpretação de dados. 6th Edn., São Paulo: Atlas.Rodrigues, R. Fórum Interativo do Biodiesel. Available from http://www.ubrabio.com.br/sites/1700/1729/00000505.pdf [ Accessed 22 Nov. 2012].
  10. Rodrigues, R., 2011. Fórum interativo do biodiesel. Available from http://www.ubrabio.com.br/sites/1700/1729/00000505.pdf [Accessed 22 Nov. 2012].
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  14. Woinaroschy, A., 2014. Multiobjective optimal design for biodiesel sustainable production. Fuel, 135(1): 393-405.
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Evandro Luis Verdi , Rosecler Maschio Gilioli , Maria Emilia Camargo , Gabriela Zanandrea , Marta Elisete Ventura da Motta , Uiliam Hahn Biegelmeyer (2014). The Biodiesel Market in Brazil and the Prospects for the Sector. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 1(11): 358-371. DOI:
This article aimed to study the biodiesel market in the country and the future prospects for the sector. Thus it was held a bibliographical research on the subject, addressing the concept of biodiesel, the main raw materials used for their production and a brief history of biodiesel in Brazil. The methodology applied in this article was qualitative and exploratory research. Still, in the qualitative phase, was used the strategy of bibliographical research, which according to Marconi and Lakatos (2006), includes bibliography ever published in relation to the subject of study. Data were obtained concerning the advantages and benefits generated by the implementation of the program of biodiesel in Brazil; growth potential of the Brazilian consumer market; future demand based on prospects for national and international economic growth and development and evolution of the biodiesel industry in different regions of the country. At the end one concludes the immediate need of the increase in the percentage of biodiesel in the diesel oil by the Government to keep the industry’s progress.
Contribution/ Originality
The results of this paper showed the need to establish immediate policies to increase the percentage of biodiesel in the diesel oil. The originality of the work developed is the identification of advantages and benefits generated by the implementation of the program of biodiesel in Brazil and growth potential of the Brazilian consumer market.

Factors Impacting on SMEs Internationalization: Dairy Industry in Zimbabwe

Pages: 343-357
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Factors Impacting on SMEs Internationalization: Dairy Industry in Zimbabwe

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Citation: 1

Tongesai Mpofu , Joyline Sauti

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Tongesai Mpofu , Joyline Sauti (2014). Factors Impacting on SMEs Internationalization: Dairy Industry in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 1(11): 343-357. DOI:
The main thrust of the study was to identify and assess the factors that impact on Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs) internationalization in the Zimbabwean dairy industry. The objectives of the research are to identify the factors that drive or motivate the internationalization of SMEs, analyze most significant barriers to SME internationalization, examine the strategies being adopted by SMEs in their internationalization process and identify and recommend strategies that will assist SMEs in dairy sector internationalization. Companies internationalize because of many factors that include profit motives, costs minimization, diversification of the markets, search for new opportunities and saturated domestic market. The factors considered in internationalization include the knowledge on the market, the availability of resources, the strategies to be used and the market environment. Despite the main motives of companies to internationalize and the advantages involved, there are obstacles that the company must overcome for successful internationalization. The sample for the study was eight SMEs in the dairy industry and simple random sampling was used for selecting respondents. Questionnaires and face to face interviews were used for data collection. The study found that the major drivers for internationalization in the Zimbabwean dairy industry included the drive to gain a large market share, maximize profits, expansion, managerial urge and competitive pressure. The dairy SMES face operational, informational, environmental and marketing challenges. The internationalization strategies used in the dairy sector include importing, exporting, foreign collaborations and subsidiaries. The study recommends that there has to be openness to internationalization, financial incentives and assistance should be given to internationalizing SMEs and there must be provision of business support service.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature on internationalization. This is one of the few studies that have been carried in Zimbabwean dairy sector. It’s of paramount importance to the Zimbabwean economy it agriculturally based.

Just-In-Time: Review of Empirical Studies

Pages: 329-342
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Just-In-Time: Review of Empirical Studies

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Patrícia Raquel Ribeiro , Maria João Machado

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Patrícia Raquel Ribeiro , Maria João Machado (2014). Just-In-Time: Review of Empirical Studies. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 1(11): 329-342. DOI:
This study is a review of literature and empirical studies on the subject of Just-in-Time (JIT), conducted by a selection of articles published in international journals included in the ISCTE Business School Ranking, released since the 1980s to the present days. The purpose of this research was to compare the key features and benefits of JIT reported by the theory with the practice reported by companies in empirical studies already conducted. In addition, the percentage of use and the importance of JIT in different countries were also analyzed. A small case study of a Japanese enterprise – Mazda Motor Corporation – was also conducted in order to complement the investigation on the subject.  As a result, it became clear that there were companies using JIT philosophy with distinct features and benefits that were not reported in the literature on the subject. The United Kingdom had the highest percentage of JIT use, and in broad terms, JIT was not frequently used in the majority of the countries surveyed. One reason for this can be explained by the fact that companies did not attribute a high degree of importance for JIT practices. This means that the companies analyzed did not implement JIT practices extensively.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature because it allows a better perception of JIT philosophy. Through it is possible: to acquire a clear idea of the main benefits and key features of JIT; to identify in the different countries considered the use of in each stage of implementation.