International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2312-0916
Print ISSN: 2312-5772
Quick Submission    Login/Submit/Track

No. 10

A Model of Strategic Thinking: Islamic and Iranian Perspective

Pages: 316-328
Find References

Finding References


A Model of Strategic Thinking: Islamic and Iranian Perspective

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search
Cite

Abbas Monavvarian

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

  1. Acur, N. and L. Englyst, 2006. Assessment of strategy formulation: How to ensure quality in process and outcome. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 26(1): 69-91.
  2. Bonn, I., 2001. Developing strategic thinking as a core competency. Management Decision, 39(1): 63-71.
  3. Bonn, I., 2005. Improving strategic thinking: A multilevel approach. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 26(5): 336-354.
  4. Camillus, J.C., 1996. Reinventing strategic planning. Planning Review, 24(3): 6-12.
  5. Collins, D.B., J.S. Lowe  and C.R. Arnett, 2000. High-performance leadership at the organization level. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 2(2): 18-46.
  6. Eden, C., 1990. Strategic thinking with computers. Long Range Planning, 23(6): 35-43.
  7. Eton, L., 2005. Strategic thinking: A discussion paper. Ottawa: Research Directorate, Public Service Commission of Canada.
  8. Ghafarian, V. and G.R. Kiani, 2010. New perspective of strategy. Tadbir, 13(2): 28-40.
  9. Goldsmith, A.A., 1996. Strategic thinking in international development: Using management tools to see the big picture. World Development, 24(9): 1431-1439.
  10. Graetz, F., 2002. Strategic thinking versus strategic planning: Towards understanding the complementarities. Management Decision, 40(5): 456-462.
  11. Hamel, G., 1998. Opinion strategy innovation and the quest for value. Sloan Management Review, 39(2): 7-14.
  12. Harper, S.C., 1991. Strategic thinking: Backwards from the future. American Business Review, 9(2): 1-9.
  13. Heracleous, L., 1998. Strategic thinking or strategic planning? Long range Planning, 31(3): 481-487.
  14. Kaufman, R., H. Oakley-Browne, R. Watkins and D. Leigh, 2003. Strategic planning for success: Aligning people, performance, and payoffs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  15. Kilroy, D.B. and M.T. McKinley, 1997. Stop analysing and start thinking:The importance of good thinking skills in a value-managed company. Management Decision, 35(3): 185-193.
  16. Lashkar Boloki, M., 2010. The laws and techniques of strategic thinking. Tehran, Iran: Nath Publication.
  17. Liedtka, J.M., 1998. Strategic thinking: Can it be taught? Long Range Planning, 31(1): 120-129.
  18. Mintzberg, H., 1981. Research notes and communications what is planning anyway? Strategic Management Journal, 2(3): 319-324.
  19. Mintzberg, H., 1994. The rise and fall of strategic planning. UK: Prentice Hall International (UK) Limited.
  20. Monnavarian, A., G. Farmani and H. Yajam, 2011. Strategic thinking in benetton. Business Strategy Series, 12(2): 63-72.
  21. Napier, N.K. and M.S. Albert, 1990. East Asian and American perspectives on thinking strategically: The leopard and his spots. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 28(4): 40-50.
  22. Stacey, R., 1992. Managing the unknowable. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  23. Stumpf, S.A., 1989. Work experiences that stretch managers’ capacities for strategic thinking. Journal of Management Development, 8(5): 31-39.
  24. Williamson, P.J., 1999. Strategy as options on the future. Sloan Management Review, 40(3): 117-126.
  25. Wilson, I., 1994. Strategic planning isn’t dead-it changed. Long Range Planning, 27(4): 12-24.
  26. Wootton, S. and T. Horne, 2010. Strategic thinking: A nine step approach to strategy and leadership for managers and marketers. 3rd Edn., UK: Kogan Page Publishers.
  27. Zabriskie, N.B. and A.B. Huellmantel, 1991. Developing strategic thinking in senior management. Long Range Planning, 24(6): 25-32.
No any video found for this article.
Abbas Monavvarian (2014). A Model of Strategic Thinking: Islamic and Iranian Perspective. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 1(10): 316-328. DOI:
Purpose - This research is trying to explore elements of strategic thinking from Islamic – Iranian point of views. 
Design/Methodology/Approach -The research method is qualitative. The main instruments of data and information collection are planned interview and library method. There was no sampling in this research. The researcher selected 17 elites (experts) familiar with the strategic management and strategic thinking.
Findings - The study has found elements of strategic thinking are: Insight and foresight (Proactive), Analytical ability, Systems thinking, Creativity, Learning, Goal oriented Vision and Familiarity with modern science.
Research limitations/implications -There are some limitations evident in this research. First, the researcher is from academic institute, so is not so familiar with Islamic literature. It means, if there is any deficiency in the literature is due to the low knowledge of the researcher. Second, although the sample size was sufficient, a larger sample may have provided better results. 

Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the elements and model of strategic thinking from Islamic and Iranian points of view. So, it paves the road for other researches to investigate the equivalent factors in other cultures and other religions.

A Multidimensional Structure of Shopping Centre Visit Objectives - An European Consumers Perspective

Pages: 305-315
Find References

Finding References


A Multidimensional Structure of Shopping Centre Visit Objectives - An European Consumers Perspective

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search
Cite

Citation: 2

Marcin Gasior , Lukasz Skowron

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

  1. Babin, B.J., W.R. Darden and M. Griffn, 1994. Work and/or fun: Measuring hedonic and utilitarian shopping value. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(4): 644-656.
  2. Celeux, G. and G. Govaert, 1992. A classification EM algorithm for clustering and two stochastic versions. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 14(3): 315–332.
  3. Dennis, C.E., 2005. Objects of desire: Consumer behaviour in shopping centre choices. London: Palgrave.
  4. Dittmar, H., 1992. The social psychology of material possessions: To have is to be. New York: St Martin’s Press.
  5. Dixon, T.J., 2005. The role of retailing in urban regeneration. Local Economy, 20(2): 168-182.
  6. Eppli, M.J. and J.D. Shilling, 1996. Changing economic perspectives on the theory of retail location In Banjamin J.D. (ed.) Megatrends in retail real estate., New York: Kulwert Academic Publishers. pp: 65-80.
  7. Grzesiuk, A., 2013. Nowoczesne kana?y dystrybucji jako kreator form sp?dzania czasu wolnego. Handel Wewn?trzny, 59(4A): 238-246.
  8. Himmelfarb, S., 1993. The measurement of attitudes. In: A.H. Eagly & S. Chaiken (Eds.), Psychology of attitudes. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
  9. Howard, E., 2007. New shopping centres: Is leisure the answer? International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 35(8): 661-672.
  10. Iacobucci, D. and G.A. Churchill, 2009. Marketing research: Methodological foundations. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
  11. Jones, M.A., 1999. Entertaining shopping experiences: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 6(3): 129-139.
  12. Knecht-Tarczewska, M., 2011. Centrum handlowe jako nowoczesny produkt handlowo-us?ugowy. Zeszyty Naukowe: Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Poznaniu, 175(1): 293-304.
  13. MacQueen, J.B., 1967. Some methods for classification and analysis of multivariate observations. Proceedings of 5-th Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1: 281-297.
  14. McIachlan, G. and T. Krishnan, 1996. The EM algorithm and extensions. 1st Edn., Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience.
  15. Meoli, J., R.A. Feinberg and L. Westgate, 1991. A reinforcement – affect model of mall patronage. Advances in Consumer Research, 18(1): 441-444.
  16. Rand, W., 1971. Objective criteria for the evaluation of clustering methods. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 66(336): 846-850.
  17. Sit, J., B. Merrilees and D. Birch, 2003. Entertainment-seeking shopping centre patrons: The missing segments. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 31(2): 80-94.
  18. Wedel, M. and W.A. Kamakura, 2000. Market segmentation. Conceptual and methodological fundations. 2nd Edn., Norwell, MA: Kulwert Academic Publishers.
  19. Witten, I.H. and E. Frank, 2000. Data mining. Practical machine learning tools and techniques. New York: Morgan Kaufmann.
  20. Wong, G.K.M., Y. Lu and L.L. Yuan, 2001. SCATTR: An instrument for measuring shopping centre attractiveness. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 29(2): 76 - 86.
No any video found for this article.
Marcin Gasior , Lukasz Skowron (2014). A Multidimensional Structure of Shopping Centre Visit Objectives - An European Consumers Perspective. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 1(10): 305-315. DOI:
Nowadays, one can observe significant, and, more importantly, constant shifts in numerous areas of consumer behaviour, especially those related to purchase processes and buyers’ attitudes toward shopping. With the grow of societies’ wealth and development levels, shopping becomes more a part of a lifestyle and a way of spending time, than a means of satisfying vital, elementary needs. Such situation resulted in tangible change in the role and the strategy of retail places and malls, and directly leaded to the concepts like leisure shopping.
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the possible reasons for visiting shopping centres and malls as well as selected attitudes towards shopping. Such analysis made it possible to assess the significance and relevance of different objectives of the visit as well as to evaluate the existence and the size of the continuum between two approaches towards shopping, defined as: (a) strictly pragmatic, and (b) leisure and social experience. 
The study was conducted on the quota sample of 1375 polish consumers, who had visited a shopping centre in the recent months.
The obtained results clearly show that, contrary to common belief, one cannot assume the existence of the consumers’ inclination towards one of abovementioned approaches, although some correlation with age and gender has been observed. Moreover, the adaptation of clustering methods (expectation-maximisation algorithm) made it possible to prove the existence of different, yet internally coherent groups of consumers, displaying different combinations of the perceived significance of evaluated reasons and objectives of the visit.

Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated detailed reasons and objectives of visiting shopping centers. Moreover, it presents the differences in the structure of aforementioned objectives in different types of consumers. 

The Recruitment of Migrant Workers in the Food Service Industry in Malaysia. A Study of Old Town White Coffee and Pappa Rich Kopitiam

Pages: 291-304
Find References

Finding References


The Recruitment of Migrant Workers in the Food Service Industry in Malaysia. A Study of Old Town White Coffee and Pappa Rich Kopitiam

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search
Cite

Citation: 5

Yeo Sing Yee , Joyce Leu Fong Yuen

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

  1. Anderson, B. and M. Ruhs, 2011. Migrant workers: Who needs them? A framework for the analysis of staff shortages, immigration, and public policy. Centre of migration, policy and society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  2. Atfield, G., A.E. Green, K. Purcell, T. Staniewicz and D. Owen, 2011. The impact of student and migrant employment on opportunities for low skilled people. UK Commission for Employment and Skills. Available from http://www.ukces.org.uk/assets/ukces/docs/publications/evidence-report-32-impact-of-student-and-migrant.pdf.
  3. Atkinson, J., 1984. Flexibility, uncertainty and manpower management. IMS Report 89. Brighton: Institute of Manpower Studies.
  4. Crinis, V., 2010. Sweat or no sweat: Foreign workers in the garment industry in Malaysia. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 40(4): 589-611.
  5. Dench, S., J. Hurstfield, D. Hill and K. Akroyd, 2006. Employers’ use of migrant labor. Home office online Report. Institute for Employment Studies. Available from http://www.northamptonshireobservatory.co.uk/docs/docrdsolr0406060818113351.pdf.
  6. Devadason, E.S., 2012. Socio-economic effect of foreign workers on the host labor market: The Malaysian perspective. Journal of Economic Literature. Available from www.ssrn.com/abstract=2026346.
  7. Durbin, S., 2004. Workplace skills, technology adoption and firm productivity: A review. New Zealand Treasury Working Paper No. 04/16. Available from http://www.treasury.govt.nz/publications/research-policy/wp/2004/04-16/twp04-16.pdf.
  8. Economic Planning Unit, 2013. Human resource development. Available from http://www.epu.gov.my/en/pembangunan-sumber-manusia
  9. Geddes, A. and S. Scott, 2010. UK food businesses’ reliance on low-wage manual labor: A case of choice or constraint? In Ruhs M. & Anderson B., eds. Who needs migrant workers: Labor shortages, immigration and public policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  10. Green, A., G. Atfield, D. Adam and T. Staniewicz, 2013. Determinants of the composition of the workforce in low skilled sectors of the UK economy. Warwick Institute for Employment Research. Available from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/257272/warwick-insti.pdf.
  11. Institution of Employment Studies, 2006. E-recruitment development, UK. Available from http://www.employment-studies.co.uk/pdflibrary/mp63.pdf.
  12. International Markets Bureau, 2011. Food service profile: Malaysia. Available from http://www.ats-sea.agr.gc.ca/ase/pdf/5855-eng.pdf.
  13. Kanapathy, V., 2006. Migrant workers in Malaysia: An overview. Malaysia: Institute of Strategic and International Studies.
  14. Learning and Skills Council, 2006. Employer perceptions of migrant workers research report. Available from http://readingroom.lsc.gov.uk/lsc/national/nat-migrantworkersandthelabourmarket.pdf.
  15. Ministry of Finance Malaysia, 2013. Economic report 2012/2013. Available from http://www.treasury.gov.my/pdf/ekonomi/le/1213/chap3.pdf.
  16. Moriarty, J., J. Manthorpe, S. Hussein and M. Cornes, 2008. Staff shortages and immigration in the social care sector. London: Migration Advisory Committee.
  17. Nayarana, S. and Y.W. Lai, 2005. The causes and consequences of immigrant labor in the construction sector in Malaysia. International Migration, 43(5): 31-57.
  18. OECD, 2013. World migration in figures. Available from http://www.oecd.org/els/mig/World-Migration-in-Figures.pdf.
  19. Old Town White Coffee, 2013. About our legacy. Available from http://www.oldtown.com.my/index.php/about/.
  20. Old Town White Coffee, 2013. Annual report. Available from http://cdn1.i3investor.com/my/files/dfgs88n/2013/09/03/1479266177--1263096278.pdf.
  21. Oliver, P., R. Daud, Y. Harmono and S. Tatt, 2012. Precarious lives: Transnational biographies of migrant oil palm workers. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 53(3): 330-342.
  22. Pappa Rich Kopitiam, 2014. Our story. Available from http://papparich.com.my/our-story/.
  23. Patricia, R.P., 2010. Migrant workers’ rights and status under international law: The Asian experience. Journal of East Asia & International Law, 3(2): 263-292.
  24. Pillai, P., 1995. Malaysia. ASEAN Economic Bulletin, 12(2): 221-236.
  25. Smith, B., 2006. Across races and nations: Social justice organising in the transnational South. London: Ashgate Publishing.
  26. South East Asia National Human Rights Institution Forum, 2010. Issues on human rights and migrant workers. Asia Pacific Journal on Human Rights and the Law, 1(11): 63-98.
  27. United Nations, 1990. International convention on the protection of the rights of all migrant workers and members of their families. [online]. Available from http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/FactSheet24rev.1en.pdf.
  28. Waldinger, R.D. and M. Lichter, 2003. How the other half works: Immigration and the social organization of labor. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
No any video found for this article.
Yeo Sing Yee , Joyce Leu Fong Yuen (2014). The Recruitment of Migrant Workers in the Food Service Industry in Malaysia. A Study of Old Town White Coffee and Pappa Rich Kopitiam. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 1(10): 291-304. DOI:
In the recent decades, the process of globalization has increased the mobility of labor and spurred rapid international migration across borders. As one of the major labor importers in Asia, the government of Malaysia is committed to reduce the number of migrant labors to 1.5 million by 2015. Though many researches have been conducted to study the employment effects of migrant workers towards the local labor economy, this research aims to examine the factors which lead to the recruitment of migrant workers in the café segment of food service industry in Malaysia, specifically Old Town White Coffee and Pappa Rich Kopitiam (Café) in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Four main factors are being studied in this research, namely the lower wages; acceptability of workers towards poor employment conditions; flexibility of employees at work and better work ethics of foreign labors. The recruitment of migrant workers is said to be motivated by three main factors: lower wages, acceptability of workers towards employment conditions and better work ethics of the foreign workforce. In addition, the flexibility of workers is proven to have no significant relationship with the recruitment of migrant workers in this sector.


Contribution/ Originality
This study explores the recruitment issues of migrant workers in the cafe industry, which has been neglected in Malaysia. Café industry is one of the industries which has huge number of migrant workers. This study gives an in-depth knowledge of employer-employee relationships in Old Town White Coffee and Pappa Rich Kopitiam (café).

Earnings Management and Stock Market Returns

Pages: 272-290
Find References

Finding References


Earnings Management and Stock Market Returns

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search
Cite

Citation: 1

Felicia Y. Amadi , Confidence W. Amadi

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

  1. Aflatooni, A. and Z. Nikbakht, 2010. Income smoothing, real earnings management and long-run stock returns. Business Intelligence Journal, 3(1): 55-73.
  2. Ali shah, S.Z., S.A. Butt and A. Hasan, 2009. Corporate governance and earnings management an empirical evidence form Pakistani listed companies. European Journal of Scientific Research, 26(4): 624-638.
  3. Ambrose, B.W. and X. Bian, 2010. Stock market information and REIT earnings management. The Journal of Real Estate Research, 32(1): 101-137.
  4. Athanasakou, V.E., N.C. Strong and M. Walker, 2009. Earnings management or forecast guidance to meet analyst expectations? Accounting and Business Research, 39(1): 3-35.
  5. Bhundia, A., 2012. A comparative study between free cash flows and earnings management. Business Intelligence Journal, 3(1): 123-129.
  6. Burgstahler, D.C. and M.J. Eames, 2003. Earnings management to avoid losses and earnings decreases: Are analysts fooled? Contemporary Accounting Research, 20(2): 253-294.
  7. Callen, J.L., S.W.G. Robb and D. Segal, 2008. Revenue manipulation and restatements by loss firms. Journal of Practice & Theory, 27(2): 1-29.
  8. Chen, K.Y., R.J. Elder and S. Hung, 2010. The investment opportunity set and earnings management: Evidence from the role of controlling shareholders. Corporate governance. An International Review, 18(3): 193-211.
  9. Chi, W., L.L. Lisic and M. Pevzner, 2011. Is enhanced audit quality associated with greater real earnings management? Accounting Horizons, 25(2): 315-335.
  10. Cohen, D., R. Mashruwala and T. Zach, 2010. The use of advertising activities to meet earnings benchmarks: Evidence from monthly data. Review of Accounting Studies, 15(4): 808-832.
  11. Cohen, D. and P. Zarowin, 2010. Accrual-based and real earnings management activities around seasoned equity offerings. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 50(1): 2-19.
  12. Cornett, M.M., A.J. Marcus and H. Tehranian, 2008. Corporate governance and pay-for-performance: The impact of earnings management. Journal of Financial Economics, 87(2): 357-373.
  13. Dechow, P.M., A.P. Hutton, J.H. Kim and R.G. Sloan, 2011. Detecting earnings management: A new approach. Journal of Accounting Research Coference. Available from http://ssrn.com/abstract=1735168.
  14. Dechow, P.M., R.G. Sloan and A.P. Sweeney, 1995. Detecting earnings management. The Accounting Review, 70(2): 193-225.
  15. Eckles, D.L., M. Halek, E. He, D.W. Sommer and R. Zhang, 2011. Earnings smoothing, executive compensation, and corporate governance: Evidence from the property-liability insurance industry. The Journal of Risk and Insurance, 78(3): 761-790.
  16. Fathi, S., S.A. Hashemi and Z. Firuzkuhi, 2011. The effect of earnings management on stock liquidity of listed companies in Tehran stock exchange. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(3): 424-430.
  17. Fazeli, Y.S. and H.A. Rasouli, 2011. Real earnings management and the value relevance of earnings. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 62: 28-37.
  18. Hashemi, S.A. and H. Rabiee, 2011b. The role of corporate governance in real earnings management: Evidence from Iran. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(6): 848-857.
  19. Healy, P.M. and J.M. Wahlen, 1999. A review of the earnings management literature and its implications for standard setting. Accounting Herizons, 13(4): 365-383.
  20. Hettihewa, S. and C.S. Wright, 2010. A review of dominant and emerging issues in corporate earnings management. Southern Business Review, 35(1): 15-36.
  21. Ibrahim, S., L. Xu and G. Rogers, 2011. Real and accrual-based earnings management and its legal consequences: Evidence from seasoned equity offerings. Accounting Research Journal, 24(1): 50-78.
  22. Islam, M.A., R. Ali and Z. Ahmad, 2011. Is modified Jones model effective in detecting earnings management?  Evidence from a developing economy. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 3(2): 116-125.
  23. Jones, J.J., 1991. Earnings management during import relief investigations. Journal of Accounting Research, 29(2): 193-228.
  24. Koh, K., D.A. Matsumoto and S. Rajgopal, 2008. Meeting or beating analyst expectations in the post-scandals world: Changes in stock market rewards and managerial actions. Contemporary Accounting Research, 25(4): 1076-1098.
  25. Laux, C. and V. Laux, 2009. Board committees, CEO compensation, and earnings management. The Accounting Review, 84(3): 869-891.
  26. Lee, N. and C. Swenson, 2011. Earnings management through discretionary expenditures in the U.S., Canada, and Asia. International Business Research, 4(2): 257-266.
  27. Libby, R., H. Tan and J.E. Hunton, 2006. Does the form of management’s earnings guidance affect analysts’ earnings forecasts? The Accounting Review, 81(1): 207-225.
  28. Matsumoto, D.A., 2002. Management’s incentives to avoid negative earnings surprises. The Accounting Review, 77(3): 483-514.
  29. Matsuura, S., 2008. On the relation between real earnings management and accounting earnings management: Income smoothing perspective. Journal of International Business Research, 7(3): 63-77.
  30. McInnis, J., 2010. Earnings smoothness, average returns, and implied cost of equity capital. The Accounting Review, 85(1): 315-341.
  31. McNichols, M.F. and S.R. Stubben, 2008. Does earnings management affect firms’ investment decisions? The Accounting Review, 83(6): 1571-1603.
  32. Pae, S. and T. Quinn, 2011. Do firms manipulate earnings when entering the bond market? Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies Journal, 15(1): 99-115.
  33. Roychwdhury, S., 2006. Earnings management through real activities manipulation. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 42(3): 335-370.
  34. Smith, M., 2009. Research methods in accounting. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.
  35. Stubben, S.R., 2010. Discretionary revenues as a measure of earnings management. The Accounting Review, 85(2): 695-717.
  36. Sun, E., 2011. Earning management for financial misstatement firms: An implication of discretionary expenditures. American Accounting Association. Available from http://aaahq.org.meeting/default.
  37. Tahir, S.H., H.M. Sabir and S.Z.A. Shah, 2011. Impact of earnings management on capital structure of non-financial companies listed on (KSE) Pakistan. Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal, 3(1): 96-105.
No any video found for this article.
Felicia Y. Amadi , Confidence W. Amadi (2014). Earnings Management and Stock Market Returns. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 1(10): 272-290. DOI:
This paper investigates the variability of real business activities in the form of discretionary expenditures (accounts receivable, selling, general and administrative expenses, and net change in accruals), and the firm’s stock price performance in relation to the frequency of meeting or beating analysts’ earnings forecast.  
In addition, the study investigated the relationship between the firm’s stock price performance, and the variability of these financial statement accounts.  The objective was to examine if these selected financial statement of accounts could be used by management to manipulate earnings in order to meet and/or beat analysts’ earnings forecasts so as to enhance the firm’s stock performance.  The study found that there is a significant difference between the variance of SG&A, NCA and stock returns of the firms that meet and/or beat the analysts’ forecast and those that do not.  It was also found that there is a significant difference in stock returns based on meeting and/or beating the analysts’ estimate. 

Contribution/ Originality
This study adds to the literature by demonstrating another avenue for earnings management that does not rely on the Jones’ model.  It also shows how the variance of financial statement accounts can be used to detect earnings management.  Finally, this paper shows that the change in stock price as a result of earnings announcement is temporary.