International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Online ISSN: 2312-0916
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No. 4

Activity Cost Management and its Effect on Enterprise Productivity

Pages: 232-247
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Activity Cost Management and its Effect on Enterprise Productivity

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.62.2019.64.232.247

John Nkeobuna Nnah Ugoani

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John Nkeobuna Nnah Ugoani (2019). Activity Cost Management and its Effect on Enterprise Productivity. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 6(4): 232-247. DOI: 10.18488/journal.62.2019.64.232.247
This study investigated the relationship between activity cost management and its effect on enterprise productivity using the exploratory research design. It focused on critical factors that lead to cost-effectiveness. A sample of 113 respondents participated in the study, and data collected from secondary and primary sources were analyzed through descriptive and regression statistical techniques. The result showed that activity cost management has significant positive effect on enterprise productivity. The new result is important because an enterprise is effective when it attains its goals, but productive only when such goals are achieved efficiently. Through the exploration and result, the study clearly highlighted that factors such as activity-based cost management, cost-benefit-analysis, internal control, ratio analysis, zero-base budgeting, internal accountability, and transparency, as well as cost leadership form the basis for enterprise productivity. An effective board of directors is imperative in any enterprise to provide necessary cost leadership for cost-effectiveness and enterprise productivity. The study was limited by insufficient current academic literature, therefore, further study could examine the relationship between activity cost management and enterprise failure. Based on the result, it was recommended that activity cost management practices must be intensified in public enterprises as a measure to reduce the heap of fraud prevalent in such enterprises.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few recent studies that have investigated the relationship between activity cost management and enterprise productivity using descriptive and regression statistical techniques to achieve the desired result. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that there is significant association between activity cost management and enterprise productivity.

Problems of Bilateral Trade Deficit between Bangladesh and India: A 2SLS Regression Analysis

Pages: 215-231
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Problems of Bilateral Trade Deficit between Bangladesh and India: A 2SLS Regression Analysis

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.62.2019.64.215.231

Muntasir Murshed , Syed Margub Elahi

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Muntasir Murshed , Syed Margub Elahi (2019). Problems of Bilateral Trade Deficit between Bangladesh and India: A 2SLS Regression Analysis. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 6(4): 215-231. DOI: 10.18488/journal.62.2019.64.215.231
This study investigates the factors that determined the bilateral trade deficit of Bangladesh against India. The results of the Johansen cointegration test indicated that there were long-term associations between the trade deficit of Bangladesh real income levels, and the bilateral RER of both countries. Results from the two-stage least squares regression analyses indicated that a 1% increase in the real income levels of Bangladesh and India aggravated the bilateral trade deficit of Bangladesh by 4.61% and 3.98% respectively while a 1% real appreciation of the bilateral real exchange rate was found to reduce the deficit by almost 6%, ceteris paribus. Results also showed that Bangladesh faced persistent deficits in its bilateral trade balance against India due to its exports being comparatively less elastic than its imports engagements with India. The paper also sheds light on the anti-dumping policy pursued by India that has contributed to the unbalanced trade between the two economies.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature by analyzing the elasticities of Bangladesh’s imports from and exports to India. It is relevant from the perspective of policy implications to understand the degrees of responsiveness of Bangladesh’s import demand and export supply leading to the nation’s trade deficit with India.

The Relationship between Financial Development, Economic Growth, and Inflation: Evidence from Southeast Asia

Pages: 201-214
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The Relationship between Financial Development, Economic Growth, and Inflation: Evidence from Southeast Asia

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.62.2019.64.201.214

Anh Tru Nguyen

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Anh Tru Nguyen (2019). The Relationship between Financial Development, Economic Growth, and Inflation: Evidence from Southeast Asia. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 6(4): 201-214. DOI: 10.18488/journal.62.2019.64.201.214
This study examines the relationship between financial development, economic growth, and inflation five developing Southeast Asian countries between 1997 and 2016 using a vector autoregressive model. The results revealed that: inflation positively affected money supply and stock market capitalization, but GDP per capita growth rate negatively; GDP per capita growth rate was positively correlated with domestic credit to the private sector; money supply positively affected stock market capitalization and inflation; domestic credit to the private sector exerted a positive influence on GDP per capita growth rate, but negative on inflation; and stock market capitalization was negatively related to inflation. Further, a directional relationship runs from GDP per capita to inflation, from inflation to money supply, and from inflation to domestic credit to the private sector. Policies are recommended to promote economic growth, reduce inflation, and achieve sustainable development in Southeast Asia. First, inflation should be carefully controlled as it causes a decline in the GDP per capita growth rate. Second, GDP per capita growth rate should be promoted owing to its positively effect on domestic credit to the private sector, which has been an important catalyst for economic growth in Southeast Asia over recent decades. Finally, domestic credit to the private sector and stock market capitalization should be fostered because of their contribution to reducing inflation and increasing the GDP per capita growth rate.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by clarifying the causal relationship between financial development, economic growth, and inflation in five developing Southeast Asian countries between 1997 and 2016, using a vector autoregressive model.

The Impact of Military Spending on Economic Wellbeing in Nigeria

Pages: 186-200
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The Impact of Military Spending on Economic Wellbeing in Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.62.2019.64.186.200

Michael A. Akume , Gylych Jelilov , Benedict Akanegbu

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Michael A. Akume , Gylych Jelilov , Benedict Akanegbu (2019). The Impact of Military Spending on Economic Wellbeing in Nigeria. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 6(4): 186-200. DOI: 10.18488/journal.62.2019.64.186.200
The impact of military spending on domestic output is contentious and therefore requires further analysis on a country by country basis to determine its level of significance. Nigeria’s military contributions to the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sub-region and the recent rise of various insurgencies, particularly, Jam??at Ahl al-Sunna lil-Da?awah wa al-Jih?d’ (Boko Haram) – arguably the most fatal insurgent group – has increased Nigeria’s military expenditure. This study investigates the impact of this increase in military spending on the economic well-being (measured by GDP per capita) of Nigerians using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to co-integration for the period from 1988 to 2017. The results suggest that there is a positive relationship between military spending and economic well-being in Nigeria. However, the impact on citizens’ wellbeing is not instantaneous as the variable is only significant after the current year spending; which does not last longer than a year. The study therefore recommends that defense spending be strategic, and that all earmarked funds for defense be deployed appropriately so that increases in wellbeing can be more long-term as opposed to lasting for only one year.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature on military spending and growth. This study uses an adapted model.