Allyn Strickland, D. and W. Leonard, 1976. Weiss, adverting, concentration, and price-cost margins [J]. Journal of Political Economy, 84(5): 1109-1122.
Chen, B., 2007. The impact analysis of market concentration on advertising for China's car industry [Master Degree Thesis]. South China Normal University.
Chen, Z., 2005. Margins and market structure: Based on the empirical analysis of China's automobile industry [J]. Journal of Research on Industrial Economic. (In Chinese), 2005(6): 37-42.
Du, X., 2012. Empirical studies on market share, advertising and corporate performance [J]. Journal of Shanxi Agricultural Sciences. (In Chinese), 2012(2): 217-219.
Du, Y. and W. Fan, 2009. Empirical study on the relationship between advertising costs and sales [J]. Journal of Shanxi Agricultural University. (In Chinese), 2009(2): 153-158.
Elliott, C., 2001. A co integration analysis of advertising and sales data [J]. Review of Industrial Organization, 18(4): 417 -426.
Li, Z. and W. Pan, 2011. Econometrics [M]. Beijing: China Higher Education Press. (In Chinese).
Liu, Z. and Q. Sh, 2003. Competition, monopoly and market forces [J]. Journal of Research on Industrial Economic. (In Chinese), 2003(4): 71-77.
Su, D., 2009. Industrial economics [M]. Beijing: China Higher Education Press (In Chinese).
Wang, L., 2004. Empirical research on relationship of advertising, focus, performance in China’s car industry [Master Degree Thesis]. Zhejiang University.
Wang, X. and C. Zhang, 2007. Empirical study on market structure and performance of China's banking card industry [J]. Journal of Shanxi Finance and Economics University. (In Chinese), 29(11): 104-108.
Xue, M., 2007. Elasticity analysis between advertising density and advertising expenditure in some industries - an empirical study based on panel data of listed companies [J]. Journal of Economic Forum. (In Chinese), 2007(5): 59-61.
Zanias, G.P., 1994. The long-run, causality, and forecasting in the advertising-sales relationship [J]. Journal of Forecasting, 13(7): 601-610.
He Yucheng , Ding Wenna , Zhang Qian , Yang Guang , Li Fangqiang (2015). Empirical Study on the Relationship between Market Share, Advertising Density and Ratio of Sales. Journal of Food Technology Research, 2(1): 11-20. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2015.2.1/126.96.36.199
The causal relationship between market share, advertising density and ratio of sales has been widely discussed in academic circles. This paper examined the extent of reaction and the reverse causal relationship between advertising, concentration, and performance. Secondary data on the enterprises’ operating income, total profits and advertising costs of the mid-range and high-end liquor enterprises, covering the period 2003-2011, were sourced from the financial statements. The simultaneous-equations model was employed to examine the mutual relationship of advertising, concentration and performance. The results of the simultaneous-equations model show that increased advertising density did not contribute to acquiring a higher market share for the mid-range and high-end liquor enterprises. We also found that a higher ratio of sales stimulated the enterprises to invest more in advertising costs; however, it did not promote the increase of market share.
This study uses new estimation methodology that is the simultaneous-equations model to examine the degree of interaction and reverse causality relationship between market share, advertising density and ratio of sales in liquor industry. It also explores the three variables’ operation mechanism, which is certainly innovative.
Evaluation of the Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobialproperties of Extracts from Chrysophyllum Albidum (African Star Apple) Leaf
Abiodun, H.A., O.A. Amos, K. Rosline, O.A. Olayemi, T.B. Olorunfemi and O.S. Taiwo, 2011. Antioxidant activities of the leaves of chrysophyllum Albidum. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci, 24(4): 545-551.
Aboaba, S.O., S.I. Smith and F.O. Olide, 2006. Antimicrobia effect of edibles plant extracts on escherichia coli 0157: H7 Pakistan. Journal of Nutrition, 5(4): 325-327.
Adisa, S.A., 2000. Vitamin C, protein and mineral contents of African apple (Chrysophyllum Albidum) In: Proceedings of the l8th Annual Conference of NIST (Eds). Garba SA. Ijagbone IF, Iyagba AO. lyamu AO, Kilani AS, Ufaruna N: pp: 141-146.
Aletor, V.A., 1993. Phyto chemicals in plant food and feeding stuffs: I. National, biochemical and physiopathological aspects in animal production. Vet. Hum. Toxicol, 35: 57- 67.
Amusa, N., O. Ashaye and M. Oladapo, 2003. Biodeterioration of the African star apple (Chrysophyllum Albidum) in storage and the effect on its food value. Afr. Biotechnol, 2: 56-59.
Bada, S., 1997. Preliminary information on the ecology of chrysophillum albidum G. Don, in West and central Africa In: Proceedings of a National Workshop on the Potentials of the Star Apple in Nigeria (Eds). Denton OA, Ladipo DO, Adetoro MA, Sarumi MB: pp: 16-25.
Bunt, M. and F. Bucar, 2000. Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oils. Phytochemistry, 57: 99-102.
Cai, Y., Q. Luo, M. Sun and H. Corke, 2004. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer. Life Sci, 74: 2157-2184.
Dada, A.A., 2010. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of some spices. Unpublished Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State Nigeria. pp: 31-40.
Dharmanada, S., 2001. Tibetan herbal medicine. Available from http://www.itmonline.org/arts/tibherbs.htm [Accessed May 16, 2011].
Ehiagbonare, J.E., H.I. Onyibe and E.E. Okoegwale, 2008. Studies on the isolation of normal and abnormal seedlings of chrysophyllum albidum: A step towards sustainable management of the taxon in the 21st century. Sci. Res Essay, 3(12): 567-570.
Enzo, A.P., 2007. Traditional plants and herbal remedies used in the treatment of diarrheal disease: Mode of action, quality, efficacy and safety considerations. Modem.
Farah, D., D.X. Tran, Y. Masaaki and T. Shinkichi, 2008. Chemical composition and antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oils from bidenpiloa linn var tudiata. J. Food Control, 19: 346-352.
Hayashi, T., K. Okamuka, M. Kawasaki and N. Morita, 1993. Production of diterpenoids by cultured cells from two chemotypes of scoparia dulces. Phytochemistry, 35(2): 353-356.
Ifesan, B.O., T., D. Ibrahim, P. Supayang and Voravuthikunchai, 2010. Antimicrobial activity of crude ethanolic extract from eleutherme Americana. J. Food, Agriculture & Environment, 8: 132-135.
Kim, D.O., H.J. Heo, Y.J. Kim, H.S. Yang and C.Y. Lee, 2005. Sweet and sour cherry phenolics and their protective effects on neuronal cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53: 9921–9927.
Makasci, A.A., R. Mammadov, O. Dusen and H.I. Isik, 2010. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of medicinal plants species ornithogalum alpigenum stapf. From Turkey. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4(16): 1637-1642.
Memnune, S., Y. Hilal, G. Neva, C. Bulent, B. Zeynep and B. Sezai, 2009. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of some medicinal plants. J. Analytical Chemistry, 22: 102-109.
Mensor, L.L., S.M. Fabio, G.L. Gildor, S.R. Alexander, C.D. Tereza, S.C. Cintia and G.L. Suzane, 2001. Screening of Brazilian plant extracts for antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical methods. Phytother. Res, 15: 127-130.
Oboh, O., E.O. Aluyor and T.O.K. Audu, 2009. Use of chrysophyllum albidum for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solution. Scientific Research and Essay, 4(6): 632-635.
Okwu, D.E. and I.N. Emenike, 2006. Evaluation of the phyto-nutrients and vitamins content of the citrus fruits. International Journal of Molecular Medicine and Advance Science, 2(1): 1-6.
Okwu, D.E. and O.D. Omodamiro, 2005. Effect of hexane extract and phytochemical content of xylopia aethiopica and ocimum gratissium on uterus of Guinea pig. Bio-Research, 3(2): 40-44.
Orijajogun, O.J., O.O. Olajide, A.O. Fatokun, A.Y. Orishadipe and M.L. Batari, 2013. The preliminary chemical constituent of free radical scavenging activity of the exocarp of the fruit extract of African star apple (Chrysophllum Albidum). International Journal of Pharma Science and Research, 3(3): 72-80.
Pracheta, V.S., P. Ritu and S. Sadhana, 2010. In vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of euphorbia neriifolialinn. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, 3: 238-242.
Schuier, M., H. Sies, B. Illek and H. Fischer, 2005. Cocoa-related flavonoids inhibit CFTR mediated chloride transport across T84 human colon Epithelia. J. Nutr, 135(10): 2320-2325. Science 2378(2318): 2088—2186.
Sofowara, A., 1993. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Books Ltd. pp: 289.
Stauth, D., 1993. Studies force new view on biology of flavonoids, Eureka alert!. Adapted from a news release issued by Oregon State University. URL accessed.
Steel, R.G.D. and J.H. Torie, 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics. New York: McGrav Hill Book.
Tawheed, A. and T. Monika, 2014. A comparative study on proximate composition, phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of linum usitatisimum L(Flax Seeds). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 3(4): 465-481.
Turkoglu, A., F. Melimet and M. Naime, 2007. Antioxidant andantimicrobial activity of russsula delica. Eurasian J. Analytical Chemistry, 2: 55-57.
Xu, R., W. Zhao, J. Xu, B. Shao and G. Qin, 1996. Studies on bioactive saponins from Chinese medicinal plants. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 404(37): 1—2.
Oguntoyinbo O.O , Abdus-Salaam R.B , Bello W.A , Ifesan B.O.T. (2015). Evaluation of the Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobialproperties of Extracts from Chrysophyllum Albidum (African Star Apple) Leaf. Journal of Food Technology Research, 2(1): 1-10. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2015.2.1/188.8.131.52
Phytochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of n-butanol, petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of the leaf of Chrysophyllumalbidum were investigated. Antioxidant activity was carried out using various tests which include; 2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total flavonoid content and the total phenolic content. The antimicrobial test was conducted on the following micro-organisms; Salmonella dysenteriae, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Penicillum spp., Aspergillusflavus, Fusariumverticoides, Aspergillus tamari and Aspergillusparasiticus using the agar well diffusion method. Results revealed that petroleum ether gave the highest extract yield (16.8%) while butanolic extract had the least yield (4.6%). At 250 µg/ml extract concentration, petroleum ether extract demonstrated the highest (73.57%) DPPH scavenging activity followed by ethanol extract (59.32%) while butanolic extract had the least scavenging activity of 32.02%, and these were significantly different (P<0.05). Total antioxidant activity (ascorbic acid equivalent) of C. albidum ranged from 42.33AAE in butanol extract to 50.6AAE in ethanol extract. Furthermore, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the leaf extracts revealed that at 250 µg/ml extract concentration, ethanol extract had the highest (0.39µmolFe(ii)/g) reduction potential, followed by petroleum ether extract (0.33µmolFe(ii)/g) and butanol extract (0.29 µmolFe(ii)/g). The total phenol content of the extracts ranged from 0.02µg/mlTAE–0.09µg/mlTAE at 1000µg/ml extract concentration. The total flavonoid content ranged from 0.47mg/gQE in petroleum ether extract to 12.74mg/gQE in butanol extract . The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of the leaf of C. albidum showed zone of inhibition ranging from 9.7mm to 31.0mm. The result showed that butanolic extract demonstrated a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity by inhibiting all the microorganisms tested while petroleum ether extract possessed no antimicrobial property. This result may be an indication that C. albidumleaf extracts could be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent.
This study documents the phytochemical, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial potential of the extracts of the leaves of Chrysophyllum albidum using different organic solvents (Petroleum ether, ethanol and butanol). This comparative evaluation in a single research work is scarce and was therefore investigated in this paper.