International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Online ISSN: 2306-6253
Print ISSN: 2312-5764
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No. 3

Eutrophication State Monitoring for Unhealthy Aquatic Ecosystem via Free-Floating Macrophytes Pattern and Behavioral

Pages: 171-177
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Eutrophication State Monitoring for Unhealthy Aquatic Ecosystem via Free-Floating Macrophytes Pattern and Behavioral

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Rashidi Othman , Qurratu Aini Mat Ali , Wan Naimatul Asiah Wan Muhamad , Maheran Yaman , Zainul Mukrim Baharuddin

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Rashidi Othman , Qurratu Aini Mat Ali , Wan Naimatul Asiah Wan Muhamad , Maheran Yaman , Zainul Mukrim Baharuddin (2014). Eutrophication State Monitoring for Unhealthy Aquatic Ecosystem via Free-Floating Macrophytes Pattern and Behavioral. International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research, 3(3): 171-177. DOI:
 Nutrient enrichment or eutrophication is a process of increasing plant nutrients in water bodies, frequently due to run-off from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life. Eutrophication process is assisted by internal and external sources of nutrients such as nitrogen fixation and phosphate. In freshwater ecosystem, anthropogenic source of nutrients such as detergents, fertilizers and organic debris are among the sources of excess nutrients for nitrogen and phosphorus. It also has been proved to be a major factor which contributes to eutrophication and consequent algal blooms, spreading of certain aquatic macrophytes, depletion of oxygen and loss of key species leading to degradation of many freshwater ecosystems. This study aimed to discover the abilities of free-floating aquatic macrophyte species as an phytoindicator for eutrophication either at contamination or pollution level in polluted aquatic ecosystem to support their upcoming development and prospective through landscape ecology approach. The effects of nutrients (ammonium, phosphate, nitrate and nitrite), the free-floating aquatic macrophytes and locations have been studied on eutrophication in aquatic freshwater ecosystem. All species ( Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Neptunia oleracea, Spirodella polyrhiza, Salviniamolesta and Pistia stratiotes) were detected with high level of phosphate at level III at all localities (Pahang, Selangor and Kelantan). Ammonium concentration was varied from class I to class III. In conclusion, changing in E.crassipes, L.minorand S.polyrhiza pattern and behavioral are proven to be the best phytoindicator for eutrophication state monitoring.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that free-floating aquatic macrophyte species have capability to be introduced in landscape ecology as potential phytoindicator for eutrophication and as green approach to monitor unhealthy aquatic ecosystem such as nutrients excess and eutrophication which is cost effective and environmental friendly.

Taming Waste via Laws of Physics

Pages: 164-170
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Taming Waste via Laws of Physics

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Mukesh Kumar

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Mukesh Kumar (2014). Taming Waste via Laws of Physics. International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research, 3(3): 164-170. DOI:
Achieving  sustainable solutions to  today’s burning environmental problems  like  atmospheric pollution, waste management etc  requires  some effective  long term  result  oriented  actions. These   can  be   correlated   with  energy  resources  generations and  its uses.  An understanding  of  laws of Physics  particularly  thermodynamics   laws  can  help in  providing a  sustainable  solution  to  these  serious  problems.  This article   discuss how  efficient  energy  resources  utilization  is   related to   waste  and  environmental  problems. The  renewable  energy  appear  to  provide an  effective  solution to waste  production and its management . The   various laws of   physics   give an idea of   their  future  energy utilization  patterns.   These laws do not offer complete solution to such  waste production and environmental degradation but  provide ways to minimize them  to such   an  extent  that  it  remains  within the  limit  of  human tolerance.  This can also show that efficient and  economic utilization  of energy  resources particularly renewable energy can results in sustainable solution to waste.


Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that  it is renewable source of  energy not only produce  waste within tolerance limit  but  also help in  managing many environmental issues.

Environmental Conservation and Use of Economic Incentives to Conserve Biological Resources in Nigeria

Pages: 155-163
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Environmental Conservation and Use of Economic Incentives to Conserve Biological Resources in Nigeria

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Greg Ekpung Edame

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Greg Ekpung Edame (2014). Environmental Conservation and Use of Economic Incentives to Conserve Biological Resources in Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research, 3(3): 155-163. DOI:
This paper analyzes environmental conservation and use of economic incentives to conserve biological resources in Nigeria. Conservation refers to the management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generations while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations.  Its compliments are preservation, maintenance, sustainable utilization, restoration and enhancement of the natural environment.  It is concerned with plants, animals, microbes, and with the non-living elements of the eco-systems which sustain them.  The varieties of ecological system in Nigeria create an endowment of biological resources of which the nation is justifiably proud of.  The conservation of these resources for the benefits of the present and future generations has been practiced with little attention given to develop a crop specialist (ecologists) to handle the subject.  Under this situation the urgency of conservation programmes can no longer be denied.  The establishment of the National Resources Conservation Council by the Nigerian Government is a welcome idea.  Working together, it should be possible to achieve the goal of conservation namely that human survival and sustainable economic development depend fundamentally on proper maintenance of renewable resources; vegetation and forest, water, marine and fisheries resources as well as wild animals and soil  resources. The paper finally looks at the values of biological resources, the cost of protecting biological resources and the status of conservation practices. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few empirical studies which have investigated environmental conservation and use of economic incentives to conserve biological resources in Nigeria. The paper employs descriptive method of analysis on the use of economic incentives to conserve biological resources. The paper’s primary contribution is in the area of the existing literature on environmental conservation and resources management.

Numerical Modeling of Wires Incorporation Response Applied To a Concealed Cable

Pages: 145-154
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Numerical Modeling of Wires Incorporation Response Applied To a Concealed Cable

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(2014). Numerical Modeling of Wires Incorporation Response Applied To a Concealed Cable. International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research, 3(3): 145-154. DOI:
In recent years hoisting ropes have been increasingly used for construction of complex structures: tall buildings, bridges and far-reaching platform for oil drilling, nuclear plants, etc. 
These structures have complex geometry and subjected to environmental loads, and operation which can cause to material many conditions beyond its elastic limit, and created a need to better understand of metal-based cables behavior.
For these situations, conventional methods of calculation or those given the current regulations are not sufficient to give a reliable representation of load-displacement relationship, state of deterioration, resistance and failure mode of structures. The quantification of these phenomena aims to design and build those equipments in safe, economic, sustainable methods and must be made by means of numerical methods, including the finite element one.
Although it is possible to establish a model without considering the effects which can allow a microscopic level, however, they are many determinants of mechanical response of cable factors. That is why their knowledge will be of great interest for modeling the behavior of materials. We therefore mention mechanical behavior of cables with the fundamental relation of damage which will be used for modeling the stress-strain relationship.
The present work falls within this context, our goal is to develop a behavior model for the lifting cables, designed for the calculation of structures by numerical methods in trying to incorporate most of the factors with their non- response linear behavior.


Contribution/ Originality

Valorization of Hazelnut Biomass Framework in Turkey: Support and Model Guidelines from the Italian Experience in the Field of Renewable Energy

Pages: 130-144
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Valorization of Hazelnut Biomass Framework in Turkey: Support and Model Guidelines from the Italian Experience in the Field of Renewable Energy

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Citation: 2

Massimo De Franchi , Karem Boubaker

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Massimo De Franchi , Karem Boubaker (2014). Valorization of Hazelnut Biomass Framework in Turkey: Support and Model Guidelines from the Italian Experience in the Field of Renewable Energy. International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research, 3(3): 130-144. DOI:
In this study, we   illustrate the results which were obtained using a comparative protocol concerning hazelnut production framework with special references to  Turkey and Italy. Investigation includes supply,    exports and several internal organization patterns. Emphasis was laid on proposing agro-forest biomass derived by hazelnut cultivations for renewable energy production via small-scale applications, in order to enhance farmers’ income within Turkish individual agro-districts. Due to importance of Turkey in world hazelnut trade, it is interesting to project some enhancements which have been already carried out in Italy. A consolidated protocol using DEA analyses gave evidence to the possibility of stabilizing both domestic and world prices along with differentiating hazelnut farmer’s income.
Contribution/ Originality