International Journal of Climate Research

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No. 1

Parametric Analysis of Rainfall Variability Over Some Selected Locations in Nigeria

Pages: 35-48
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Parametric Analysis of Rainfall Variability Over Some Selected Locations in Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.112.2021.51.35.48

Falaiye O. A. , Olaitan A. G. , Nwabachili S. C.

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Falaiye O. A. , Olaitan A. G. , Nwabachili S. C. (2021). Parametric Analysis of Rainfall Variability Over Some Selected Locations in Nigeria. International Journal of Climate Research, 5(1): 35-48. DOI: 10.18488/journal.112.2021.51.35.48
Rainfall is one meteorological parameter that affects virtually all human activities. For instance, the amount of rainfall received in an area is an important determining factor in estimating or quantifying the amount of water available to meet various demands, such as agricultural, industrial, domestic water supply, and power generation. Climate change has generally been accepted to be a result of the emission of excess greenhouse gases. It has caused an increase in flooding, severe and more frequent droughts, increase in wildfires, and heatwaves in various parts of the globe. Climate change is said to have a considerable impact on the variability in hydro-meteorological variables such as rainfall, temperature, and evaporation. In this study, we carry out a parametric analysis of rainfall variability over some selected locations in Nigeria and determine the trend using surface observation data from seven weather stations. The datasets of rainfall used in this study were acquired; from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) for a period of 30 years (1980 to 2010) from seven locations; which are Abuja, Enugu, Ikeja, Ilorin, Maiduguri, Port Harcourt, and Sokoto, representing the six geographical zones of Nigeria. The results gotten showed an upward movement in the trend line which indicated an increase in the amount of rainfall received by the study areas. While some Cities (Maiduguri, Sokoto) received a large increase in the amount of rainfall received yearly, others received a slight increase such as Lagos, Port Harcourt, Ilorin, Abuja and Enugu
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature about the evidence of variability in rainfall across Nigeria. This study will therefore help the government to introduce policies that will help in cushioning the effects of climate change as regards agriculture and land usage.

Climate Change Effect on Irrigation Water Requirement of Wheat and Maize in Northern Part of Bangladesh

Pages: 25-34
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Climate Change Effect on Irrigation Water Requirement of Wheat and Maize in Northern Part of Bangladesh

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.112.2021.51.25.34

Md. Panjarul Haque , Md. Zakir Hossain , Muhammad Ahsan Ali

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Md. Panjarul Haque , Md. Zakir Hossain , Muhammad Ahsan Ali (2021). Climate Change Effect on Irrigation Water Requirement of Wheat and Maize in Northern Part of Bangladesh. International Journal of Climate Research, 5(1): 25-34. DOI: 10.18488/journal.112.2021.51.25.34
Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries for climate change in agricultural water management. A research had been done to assess climate change effects on irrigation water use of wheat and maize in the northern part of Bangladesh. The twenty nine years of data (1990-2018) were analyzed with Mann-Kendall test as well as Sen’s slope for climate change impact and the responsible weather parameters due to climate change were identified with correlation coefficients. The crop water requirement of wheat in Bogura and Rangpur was declining at the rate of 3.3mm and 2.3mm per decade respectively. Net irrigation water requirement of wheat at both Bogura and Rangpur was inclining at the rate of 1mm and 10mm per decade respectively because the effective rainfall of these regions was decreasing at 5mm and 11mm per decade respectively. The crop water requirement of maize for similar districts was increasing at the rate of 3.2mm and 2.5mm per decade respectively although net irrigation water requirement had statistically non-significance for climate change effect. The weather parameter, which was mainly responsible for climatic change in irrigation water requirement, was increasing temperature. Therefore, wheat cultivation might be coped with climate change in the northern part of Bangladesh rather than maize on the basis of irrigation and water management.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that the northern region of Bangladesh might be meet up extra irrigation water demand for wheat and maize cultivation due to climate change.

Estimating the Extreme Temperature Occurrence Over Pakistan Using Interannual and Interdecadal Temperature Variation and Teleconnections During 1901-2018

Pages: 15-24
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Estimating the Extreme Temperature Occurrence Over Pakistan Using Interannual and Interdecadal Temperature Variation and Teleconnections During 1901-2018

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.112.2021.51.15.24

Khurram Riaz , Naveera Aziz , Harram Riaz

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Khurram Riaz , Naveera Aziz , Harram Riaz (2021). Estimating the Extreme Temperature Occurrence Over Pakistan Using Interannual and Interdecadal Temperature Variation and Teleconnections During 1901-2018. International Journal of Climate Research, 5(1): 15-24. DOI: 10.18488/journal.112.2021.51.15.24
Temperature changes across Asia have significant impacts on human livelihoods and habitats through their impacts on drought, irrigation, water availability, vegetation, and agriculture. The spread of South Asian temperatures is characterised by a heavy seasonality across most of the subcontinent. This research focuses on the interpretation of temperatures and disturbances occurring in this part of the South Asian zone and their association with sea surface temperature (SST). Data from the Climate Research Unit (CRU) and data from the SST (1901-2018) were obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The findings reveal that the years from 1901 to 1945 begin to look cooler, becoming less cool as we pass into the 1950s, and rapid warming over the last few decades, both of which show the last decade to be the warmest, particularly since 1980. The findings also demonstrate that there is more warming over land than over oceans because water is slower to consume and emit heat (thermal inertia).
Contribution/ Originality
This study assesses the warming occurring in the south Asian zone and global sea surface temperature over the last few decades, the warming is more rapidly over land than over oceans.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Human Development: Implications for Climate Change Impacts in Africa

Pages: 1-14
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Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Human Development: Implications for Climate Change Impacts in Africa

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.112.2021.51.1.14

Ubi-Abai Itoro Praise , Enobong Udemeabasi Mbobo

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Ubi-Abai Itoro Praise , Enobong Udemeabasi Mbobo (2021). Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Human Development: Implications for Climate Change Impacts in Africa. International Journal of Climate Research, 5(1): 1-14. DOI: 10.18488/journal.112.2021.51.1.14
This study examined the effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on human development, particularly focusing on its impacts on the human development in Africa. The paper first discussed the trends in global GHG emissions and human development, and subsequently adopted the ARDL estimation technique to examine the effects of GHG emissions on human development in Africa from two perspectives. This involved examining and comparing the effects of GHG emissions from African countries and that from the rest of the world (ROW) on the human development in the region at two periods in time. Results showed that GHG emissions from Africa and from the ROW are increasing. Moreover, both have the same effects on human development in Africa in two periods in time. These effects were positive and significant in the short run, and negative and significant in the long run. The former implies that as GHG emissions increase in the short run, human development improves. Conversely, the latter means that as GHG emissions increased in the long run, human development retards. The comparative analysis showed that, in the short run, GHG-emitting activities from the ROW have benefited African countries much more than what they can produce for themselves. However, GHG-emitting activities from the ROW emit GHGs larger than that emitted in Africa in the long run which causes climate change with undesirable consequences that undermine human development in Africa. Finally, various strategic mitigation procedures and adaptive measures were recommended.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the activities in Africa that have the most greenhouse gas emissions. The study contributes to the existing literature by using the ARDL estimation methodology to examine the effects of GHG emissions on human development in Africa from two perspectives.