International Journal of Climate Research

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2690-2796
Print ISSN: 2690-2796
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No. 1

Contribution of Glacier, Snow and Rain Components in Flow Regime Projected with HBV Under AR5 Based Climate Change Scenarios Over Chitral River Basin (Hindukush Ranges, Pakistan)

Pages: 24-36
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Contribution of Glacier, Snow and Rain Components in Flow Regime Projected with HBV Under AR5 Based Climate Change Scenarios Over Chitral River Basin (Hindukush Ranges, Pakistan)

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.112.2020.41.24.36

Burhan A. , M. Usman , S. A. A. Bukhari , H. Sajjad

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Burhan A. , M. Usman , S. A. A. Bukhari , H. Sajjad (2020). Contribution of Glacier, Snow and Rain Components in Flow Regime Projected with HBV Under AR5 Based Climate Change Scenarios Over Chitral River Basin (Hindukush Ranges, Pakistan). International Journal of Climate Research, 4(1): 24-36. DOI: 10.18488/journal.112.2020.41.24.36
Knowledge of projection and attribution of streamflow composition in rain and snow fed glaciated catchments has been of vital significance to a spectrum of stakeholder communities. Accordingly, assessment of contributed share of rain, snow and glacier to downstream flow regime in snowy and glaciated catchment area of Chitral River Basin (CRB) in historical and projected periods was made in this study. HBV-Light hydrological model (hereafter HBV) was used to identify temporal variation and composition of streamflow in response to alterations in hydro-meteorological parameters over the CRB. The HBV was seen to perform fairly well both during calibration (R2=0.91, Reff=0.91) and validation (R2=0.91, Reff=0.81) periods on daily time scale in the CRB. The HBV was thereafter deployed for prediction of streamflow changes and composition in the CRB using Assessment Report 5 (AR5) based projections. Projected patterns indicated significant changes in flows with up to 26.7% increase that were attributed to up to 6.6 °C increase in the temperature under a high end emission scenario over the basin. Whereas a loss in contribution of snow was seen, a simultaneous increase of up to 28% in the contribution of glacier melt with significant density increase is projected for the flow regime under the high end emission scenario. Moreover, the significant increase in glacier melt was found in phase with residence of high temperatures forced with the emission scenarios in the CRB over the projected periods.
Contribution/ Originality
This study assesses frequency shifts in high and low magnitude temperature and discharge data in the projections to address attributions to changes seen in the future periods.

Analysis of Trend and Variability of Climate of Hawassa Based on Surface Observations

Pages: 16-23
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Analysis of Trend and Variability of Climate of Hawassa Based on Surface Observations

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.112.2020.41.16.23

Kefiyalew Ayele Alandu

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Kefiyalew Ayele Alandu (2020). Analysis of Trend and Variability of Climate of Hawassa Based on Surface Observations. International Journal of Climate Research, 4(1): 16-23. DOI: 10.18488/journal.112.2020.41.16.23
Precipitation and temperature are the main determinants of climate change and variability of one’s area. Their change can be disruptive to the normal hydrological processes which plays an important role in agricultural and non-agricultural operations activities. This study is to determine climatology, trends, onset and retreat of rainy seasons and variation in temperature and precipitation by statistical and Mann Kendall test methods at Hawassa station for the period of 1973-2018. The increasing trend of minimum and maximum temperature were detected to be 0.05 and 0.04°C with high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.63 and 0.66), respectively. Besides, annual rainfall showed a coefficient of variation 15.2% with mean and standard deviation 965.3mm and 146.5, respectively. Seasonally, Belg season showed higher variability with statistical significant an increasing trend. And also the mean onset Belg season was identified as in the 1st decade of March and cessation date was in the 2nd decade of May, and Kiremt season mean onset was after 1st decade of June and cessation in the 2nd decade of September. The observed warming temperature and fluctuation of rainfall are impacts of global climate change during the last decades in the area.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is my original work to contribute in the existing knowledge of climate and increase the understanding of the seasonal cycle of rainfall for the benefit of local social-economic activities.

Evaluation of Environmental Awareness Level among Stakeholders in Rural and Urban Communities, Southern Nigeria

Pages: 1-15
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Evaluation of Environmental Awareness Level among Stakeholders in Rural and Urban Communities, Southern Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.112.2020.41.1.15

Solomon Akpafun , Gabriel C. C. Ndinwa , Charity O. Chukumah

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Solomon Akpafun , Gabriel C. C. Ndinwa , Charity O. Chukumah (2020). Evaluation of Environmental Awareness Level among Stakeholders in Rural and Urban Communities, Southern Nigeria. International Journal of Climate Research, 4(1): 1-15. DOI: 10.18488/journal.112.2020.41.1.15
This study was carried out to evaluate the level of environmental awareness of stakeholders in the urban and rural settlements in Delta State, southern Nigeria so as to infer the depth of environmental education that would be embarked on. Five major stakeholders in the state that constituted the major strata of sampling were selected. A total of 14 communities; 7 in the urban/semi urban local governments and 7 in the rural local governments were studied using the stratified sampling technique. Descriptive statistic was adopted for the study and questionnaires were administered to stakeholders. The study revealed that contrary to findings from a number of studies in other part of the globe, students were more knowledgeable on environmental issues followed by public/civil servants and traders/businessmen among stakeholders from the urban settlements. Stakeholders younger in age were not more knowledgeable than older stakeholders in the rural settlements about environmental problems. Male stakeholders had higher percentage level of awareness than their female counterparts. A higher percentage of stakeholders from the rural settlements are still not aware on the environmental terms sought for in this study than stakeholders from urban settlements. This study recommends that given the current level of environmental degradation experienced on a daily base in Nigeria and the limited awareness level of stakeholders on environmental issues, government at various levels should through wider publicity in the ministries of environment and education intensify the campaign on environmental education.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the environmental awareness level among stakeholders in the rural-urban communities of Nigeria. The analysis and findings will enrich the depth of available literature on environmental awareness of stakeholders in developing nations.