International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2410-9444
Print ISSN: 2413-8444
Quick Submission    Login/Submit/Track

No. 2

Occurrence and Anti-Fungal Sensitivity Testing of Candida Species Isolated from Canine Conjunctivitis

Pages: 8-14
Find References

Finding References


Occurrence and Anti-Fungal Sensitivity Testing of Candida Species Isolated from Canine Conjunctivitis

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search
Cite

DOI: 10.18488/journal.110/2016.2.2/110.2.8.14

Olabode, H.O.K , Ameh, J.A , Egwu, G.O , Bello, R.H , Nwniyi, F.C

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

  1. [S. Carvalhinho, A. M. Costa, A. C. Coelho, E. Martins, and A. Sampaio, "Susceptibilities of Candida albicans mouth isolates to antifungal agents, essentials oils and mouth rinses," Mycopathologia, vol. 174, pp. 69–76, 2012.
  2. M. R. Brown, C. A. Thompson, and F. M. Mohamed, "Sys¬temic Candidiasis in an apparently immunocompetent dog," Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, vol. 17, pp. 272–276, 2005.
  3. C. E. Greene and F. W. Chandler, Candidiasis, torulop¬sosis, and rhodotorulosis. In: Greene CE (Ed.): Infec¬tious diseases of the dog and cat, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1998.
  4. W. Chester, C. H. Emmons, and J. P. Binford, Medical microbiology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia USA: Lea and Febiger, 1970.
  5. C. Yurayart, "Comparative analysis of the frequency, distribution and population sizes of yeasts associated with canine seborrheic dermatitis and healthy skin," Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 148, pp. 356-62, 2011.
  6. R. A. Covadonga, J. K. Burns, L. M. Friedrich, R. M. Goodrich, and M. E. Parish, "Yeast species associated with orange juice: Evaluation of different identification methods," Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 68, pp. 1955-1961, 2002.
  7. A. Moretti, F. D. Piergili, L. Boncio, P. Pasquali, and R. Del, "Isolation of Candida rugosa from turkeys," Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Series B, vol. 47, pp. 433-439, 2000.
  8. C. P. Robin, P. Herkhout, and F. McClary, "Factors affecting the morphology of Candida ablicans," Journal of Biology Missouri Botanical Gardens, vol. 39, pp. 137-164, 2006.
  9. F. Rochete, M. Engelen, and B. H. Vanden, "Antifungal agents of use in animal health pratical applications," Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 26, pp. 31-53, 2003.
  10. M. Moosa, Y. Harrison, and J. Scofield, "Fungal activity of fluconazole against Candida albicans in synthetic vagina simulative motium auto-microbial agent," J. Chemotherapy, vol. 48, pp. 161-167, 2004.
  11. B. Vande, "Susceptibility testing of fluconazole by the NCCL broth macrodilution method, E-test, and disk diffusion for application in routine laboratory," Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 40, pp. 918-21, 2010.
  12. M. Skoric, P. Fictum, I. Slana, P. Kriz, and I. Pavlik, "A case of systemic mycosis in a Hovawart dog due to Candida albicans case report," Veterinarni Medicina, vol. 56, pp. 260–264, 2011.
  13. A. Ates, M. Likit, R. Ozdermir, and K. Ozdean, "Dermatophtes isolated from asymptomatic dogs in Adana, Turkey: A preliminary study," Journal de Mycologie Médicale/Journal of Medical Mycology, vol. 18, pp. 154-7, 2008.
  14. M. Manfredi, M. J. McCullough, L. Polonelli, S. Conti, Z. M. Al-Karaawi, and P. Vescovi, "In vitro antifungal susceptibility to six antifungal agents of 229 Candida isolates from patients with diabetes mellitus," Oral Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 21, pp. 177–82, 2006.
  15. F. J. Baker, R. E. Silverton, and C. J. Pallister, Baker and silverton's introduction to medical laboratory technology (Hodder Arnold Publication): Hodder Arnold Publication, 1998.
  16. M. Cheesbrough, District laboratory practice in tropical countries. Cambridge: ELBS University Press, 2002.
  17. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), "Antifungal susceptibility testing committee report, No. 17," NCCLS, Villanova, Pa1986.
  18. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute [CLSI], Reference method for broth dilution antifungal susceptibility testing of Yeast: Approved standard -Third Edition, M27A3E. Wayne, Pa: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 2008.
  19. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards [NCCLS], Reference method for antifungal disk diffusion susceptibility testing of yeasts; approved guideline. NCCLS document M44-A. Wayne: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, 2004.
  20. Z. M. Ali, Z. Majid, and B. Maryam, "Antifungal susceptibility testing of candida species isolated from Candiduria," Journal of Microbiology, vol. 6, pp. 24- 28, 2013.
  21. K. Pakshir, L. Bahaedinie, Z. Rezaei, M. Sodaifi, and K. Zomorodian, "In-vitro activity of six antifungal drugs against clinically important derma¬tophytes," Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, vol. 2, pp. 158-63, 2011.
  22. M. A. Pfaller, D. J. Diekema, A. L. Colombo, C. Kibbler, K. P. Ng, and D. L. Gibbs, "Candida rugosa, an emerging fungal pathogen with resistance to azoles: Geographic and temporal trends from the artemis disk antifungal surveillance program," Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 44, pp. 3578-82, 2006.
  23. J. Lineck, "Mycotic endopthalmitis in dogs caused by Candida albicans," Veterinary Ophthalmology, vol. 7, pp. 159-162, 2004.
  24. B. M. Pressler, "Candida spp. urinary tract infections in 13 dogs and seven cats: Predisposing factors, treatment, and outcome," Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, vol. 39, pp. 263-70, 2003.
  25. U. Joann and O. S. A. Henry, Doggie health care, 2nd ed. The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers BV, Amsterdam, 2002.
  26. P. Eira, H. Outi, A. Veli-jukka, and R. Petri, "Candidemia in Finland, 1995-1999," Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 9, pp. 985-989, 2003.
  27. E. I. Nweze, "Oral candida isolated among HIV- infected subjects in Nigeria," Middle East Journal of Family Medicine, vol. 49, pp. 7-10, 2011.
  28. K. P. Apurva, R. J. Navin, and J. Kuchi, "Antibiogram of Candida species isolated from multispecies oral candidal carriage using paper disk diffusion method," Saudi Journal for Health Sciences, vol. 1, pp. 132- 138, 2012.
  29. B. Favre, B. Hofbauer, K. Hildering, and W. S. Ryder, "Comparison of in-vitro activities of- 17 antifungal Drugs against a panel of 20 Dermatophytes by using a midilution assay," Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 41, pp. 4817-4819, 2003.
  30. D. Sanglard and F. C. Odds, "Resistance of Candida species to antifungal agents: Molecular mechanisms and clinical consequences," Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 2, pp. 3-85, 2002.
Olabode, H.O.K , Ameh, J.A , Egwu, G.O , Bello, R.H , Nwniyi, F.C (2016). Occurrence and Anti-Fungal Sensitivity Testing of Candida Species Isolated from Canine Conjunctivitis. International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research, 2(2): 8-14. DOI: 10.18488/journal.110/2016.2.2/110.2.8.14
Fungal infection in dogs and other domestic pets caused by Candida species have been previously reported. Several available antifungal drugs for treatment of yeast associated infections have been used with diverse effects. This study establishes antifungal susceptibility profile on identified Candida species isolates associated with canine conjunctivitis using disks diffusion method as described by NCCLS (M44-A). The antifungal disks used include Amphotericin-B (20mcg), Nystatin (100units), Itraconazole (10mcg), Ketaconazole (10mcg), Fluconazole (25mcg). The identified Candida species were C. albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis. Percentage susceptibility was high in both Amphotericin B (77.27%) and Nystatin (58.18%), while Itraconazole showed (54.54%), Ketoconazole (55.45%) and Fluconazole was least (11.82%). The sensitivity ranking showed Amphothericin B > Nystatin > Itraconazole > Ketoconazole > Fluconazole and increased resistance amongst the Azoles especially Fluconazole (70.90%) in comparison with Polyenes. C. albicans showed the highest resistance (84.51%) to both Fluconazole and ketoconazole (67.61%). C. parapsilosis showed 63.64% and 61.54% percentage resistance to Nystatin and Itraconazole respectively. In conclusion, this finding showed that Amphotericin B and Nystatin were most effective against isolated Candida species. Proper diagnosis of the underlying ailment is necessary in conjunction with routine anti-fungal susceptibility testing to avoid drug abuse and resistance.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature of canine Candida species epidemiology and control using conventional cultural, characterization and antifungal sensitivity test methodology. This first preliminary study conducted in Abuja-FCT, Nigeria revealed effectiveness of Amphotericin B and Nystatin on Candida species isolates associated with canine conjunctivitis.