E. M. Hamad, E. A. Abdel-Rahim, and E. A. Romeih, "Beneficial effect of camel milk on liver and kidneys function in diabetic sprague-dawley rats," Int. J. Dairy Sci., vol. 6, pp. 190-197, 2011.
G. M. Meiloud, I. N. Ould Bouraya, A. Samb, and A. Houmeida, "Composition of mauritanian camel milk: Results of first study," Int. J. Agric. Biol., vol. 13, pp. 145–147, 2011.
B. Brun, H. Hecker, and Z. R. Lun, "Trypanosoma evansi and T. Equiperdum: Distribution, biology, treatment and phylogenetic relationship (A Review)," Vet. Parasitol, vol. 79, pp. 95–107, 1998.
F. N. C. Enwezor and A. K. B. Sackey, "Camel trypanosomosis—A review," Vet. Arch., vol. 75, pp. 439–452, 2005.
M. S. Al-Khalifa, H. S. Hussein, F. M. Diab, and G. M. Khalil, "Blood parasites of livestock in certain regions in Saudi Arabia," Saudi J. Biol. Sci., vol. 16, pp. 63–67, 2009.
C. Gutierrez, J. A. Corbera, M. C. Juste, F. Doreste, and I. Morales, "An outbreak of abortions and high neonatal mortality associated with trypanosoma evansi infection in dromedary camels in the Canary Islands," Vet. Parasitol, vol. 130, pp. 163–168, 2005.
P. R. Jatkar and M. S. Purohit, "Pathogenesis of anaemia in trypanosoma evansi infection," Ind. Vet. J., vol. 48, pp. 239-244, 1971.
V. O. Anosa, "Haematological and biochemical changes in human and animal trytpanosomiasis. Part. 1," Revue Elev. Med. Vet. Pays. Trop., vol. 41, pp. 65–78, 1988.
K. Taylor and E. M. L. Authie, Pathogenesis of animal trypanosomiasis. In: I. Maudlin, P.H. Holmes and M.A Miles (Eds). The trypanosomiases. Cambridge, USA: CABI Publishing, 2004.
Z. I. Chaudhary and J. Iqbal, "Incidence, biochemical and haematological alterations induced by natural trypanosomosis in racing dromedary camels," Acta Trop., vol. 77, pp. 209–213, 2000.
A. A. Al–Qarawi, H. Abdel–Rahman, and S. A. ElMougy, "Impairment in the pituitary–thyroid axis of the camelus dromedarius infected with trypanosoma evansi," Deut. Tierarztl. Wochenschr, vol. 108, pp. 172–174, 2001.
M. A. Saleh, "Erythrocytic oxidative damage in crossbred cattle naturally infected with babesia bigemina," Res. Vet. Sci., vol. 86, pp. 43–48, 2009.
M. A. Saleh, M. B. Al-Salahy, and S. A. Sanousi, "Oxidative stress in blood of camels (Camelus Dromedaries) naturally infected with trypanosoma evansi," Vet. Parasitol., vol. 162, pp. 192–199, 2009.
T. Lu, X. L. Piao, and Q. Zhang, "A protective effects of forsythia suspensa extract against oxidative stress induced by diquat in rats," Food and Chemical Toxicol, vol. 48, pp. 764–770, 2010.
A. Mujahid, Y. Yoshiki, Y. Akiba, and M. Toyomizu, "Superoxide radical production in chicken skeletal muscle induced by acute heat stress," Poult. Sci., vol. 84, pp. 307-314, 2005.
E. Cadenas and K. J. A. Davies, "Mitochondrial free radical generation, oxidative stress, and aging," Free Radic. Biol. Med., vol. 29, pp. 222–230, 2000.
H. Kühn and A. Borchert, "Regulation of enzymatic lipid peroxidation: The interplay of peroxidizing and peroxide reducing enzymes," Free Radic. Biol. Med., vol. 33, pp. 154–172, 2002.
O. Sehirli, A. Tozan, G. Omurtag, S. Cetinel, G. Contuk, N. Gedik, and G. Sener, "Protective effect of resveratrol against naphthalene-induced oxidative stress in mice," Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., vol. 71, pp. 301–308, 2008.
H. Sies, Oxidative stress: Introduction. In: H. Sies (Eds).Oxidative stress: Oxidants and antioxidants. San Diego: Academic Press Inc, 1991.
H. P. Misra and I. Fridovich, "The role of superoxide anion in the auto oxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for superoxide dismutase," J. Biol. Chem., vol. 274, pp. 3170–3174, 1972.
M. Arias and W. B. Jakoby, Glutathione: Metabolism and function. New York, USA: Raven Press, 1976.
Z. A. Placer, L. L. Cushman, and B. C. Johnson, "Estimation of product of lipid peroxidation (Malonyldialdehyde) in biochemical systems," Anal. Biochem., vol. 16, pp. 359–364, 1966.
SAS, Statistical analysis system. User's guide. Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute Inc, 2002.
J. M. C. Gutteridge, "Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants as biomarkers of tissue damage," Clin. Chem., vol. 41, pp. 1819–1828, 1995.
I. O. Igbokwe, K. A. N. Esievo, D. I. Saror, and O. K. Obagaiye, "Increased susceptibility of erythrocytes to in vitro peroxidation in acute trypanosoma brucei infection of mice," Vet. Parasitol, vol. 55, pp. 279–286, 1994.
B. Chandrasekar, P. C. Melby, D. A. Troyer, and G. L. Freeman, "Differential regulation of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in experimental acute chagasic cardiomyopathy," Exp. Immunol., vol. 121, pp. 112–119, 2000.
A. D. Malvezi, R. Cecchini, F. De Souza, C. E. Tadokora, L. V. Rizzo, and P. Pinge-Filho, "Involvement of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-alpha in the oxidative stress associated with anemia in experimental trypanosoma cruzi infection," FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., vol. 41, pp. 69–77, 2004.
J. Wen, G. Vyatkina, and N. Garg, "Oxidative damage during chagasic cardiomyopathy development: Role of mitochondrial oxidant release and inefficient antioxidant defense," Free Radic. Biol. Med., vol. 37, pp. 1821–1833, 2004.
B. Halliwell and J. M. C. Gutteridge, "The importance of free radicals and catalytic metal ions in human diseases," Mol. Aspects Med., vol. 8, pp. 89–193, 1985.
U. Bandyopadhyay, D. Das, and R. K. Banerjee, "Reactive oxygen species: Oxidative damage and pathogenesis," Current Science, vol. 77, pp. 658-666, 1999.
M. Kurata, M. Suzuki, and N. S. Agar, "Antioxidant systems and erythrocyte life-span in mammals," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B., vol. 106, pp. 477–487, 1993.
I. N. Zelko, T. J. Mariani, and R. J. Folz, "Superoxide dismutase multigene family. A comparison of the CuZn-SOD (SOD1), Mn-SOD (SOD2), and EC-SOD (SOD3) gene structures, evolution, and expression," Free Radic. Biol. Med., vol. 33, pp. 337–349, 2002.
R. Masella, R. Di Benedetto, R. Var?, C. Filesi, and C. Giovannini, "Novel mechanisms of natural antioxidant compounds in biological systems: Involvement of glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes," J. Nutr. Biochem., vol. 16, pp. 577–586, 2005.
O. H. Omer, H. M. Mousa, and N. Al-Wabel, "Study on the antioxidant status of rats experimentally infected with trypanosoma evansi," Vet. Parasitol., vol. 145, pp. 142–145, 2007.
E. R. Jaffe, "Methaemoglobinaemia," Clin. Haematol, vol. 10, pp. 99-122, 1981.
J. W. Harvey, The erythrocyte: Physiology, metabolism and biochemical disorders. In: J.J. Kaneko and J.W. Harvey, M.L. Bruss (Eds). Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals, 5th ed. London: Academic Press, 1997.
B. O. Ikede, M. Lule, and R. J. Terry, "Anaemia in trypanosomiasis: Mechanisms of erythrocyte destruction in mice infected with trypanosoma congolense or T. brucei," Acta Trop., vol. 34, pp. 53–60, 1977.
I.M. Eljalii , W.M. EL-Deeb , T.A. Fouda , A.M. Almujalli , S.M. El-Bahr (2015). Blood Picture and Selected Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Dromedary Camels Naturally Infected With Trypanosoma Evansi. International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research, 1(2): 46-53. DOI: 10.18488/journal.110/2015.1.2/18.104.22.168
Additional Biomarkers are required for estimation of the oxidative stress status in camel trypanosomiasis. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine lipid peroxidation, enzymatic antioxidants level and hematological indices in camels naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi and trypanosome free camels (control). The clinical examinations reveled that all the infected camels showed signs of loss of appetite, diarrhea and loss of weight with poor body condition. Hematological analysis revealed a significant decrease (P=0.022-0.031) in the values of total erythrocytic count (TEC), hemoglobin (Hb) and Packed cell volume (PCV) in trypansoma infected camels (5.0 ± 0.5 ×1012/L; 5.7 ± 0.5 g/dl; 21.8 ± 1.0%) compared to control group (9.6 ± 0.6 ×1012/L; 10.3 ± 0.5 g/dl; 29.1 ± 1.5%). However, the values of total leucocytic counts (TLC) and differential counts were comparable to the control values except for Eosinophils value which were significantly (P=0.023) increased in trypanosome infected camel (6.0 ± 1.9%) compare to the control (1.8 ± 0.8%). Biochemical analysis indicated that, lipid peroxidation level was significantly (P=0.021) increased in trypansoma infected camels as reflected on higher values of malonaldhyde (MDA; 6.3 ± 0.3µM) as compare to the control (0.07 ± 0.01µM). The activity of glutathione reductase was significantly (P=0.025) increased in trypansoma infected camels (1.3 ± 0.01nmol/ml) compare to the control (0.8 ± 0.2nmol/ml) whereas, the activity of super oxide dismutase (SOD) remained unchanged (P=0.072) in trypansoma infected camels compare to the control healthy animal. The present findings concluded that Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels was associated with lipids peroxidation and oxidative stress. In addition, the present study suggests that glutathione reductase may use as oxidative stress biomarker in Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels.
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated lipid peroxidation, enzymatic antioxidants level and hematological indices in camels naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi.
Assessment of Veterinary Inspection Practices on Quality of Beef Produced In Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
W. K. Devine and C. Jensen, Encyclopedia of meat science. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press, 2004.
D. Thakur, R. K. Ravikumar, P. Kumar, A. Gupta, A. Sharma, S. Katoch, and V. K. Bodh, "Meat inspection and animal welfare practices: Evidences from North-Western Himalayan region, India," Veterinary World, vol. 5, pp. 718-722, 2012.
R. A. Olufemi, O. M. Edugbo, E. O. Solanke, and A. J. Akinyeye, "Meat quality, nutrition security and public health: A review of beef processing practices in Nigeria," African Journal of Food Sciences and Technology, vol. 4, pp. 96 – 99, 2013.
S. Buncic, Integrated food safety and veterinary public health. Wallingford: Oxford Shire, 2006.
V. G. Erick, E. V. Komba, E. M. Komba, A. O. Mkupasi, S. M. Mbyuzi, M. Alexanda, and L. Denice, "Sanitary practices and occurrence of zoonotic conditions in cattle at slaughter in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania: Implications for public health," Tanzania Journal of Health Research, vol. 14, pp. 1-12, 2012.
D. D. Joshi, M. Maharjan, M. V. Johansen, A. L. Willingham, and M. Sharma, "Improving meat inspection and control in resource poor communities; the Nepal example," Acta Tropical, vol. 87, pp. 119 – 127, 2003.
T. A. Asse, G. Kagambe, A. Kaisa, H. Anja, S. Alfred, S. Traore, and B. Niclas, "Prevalence of salmonella enterica and hygienic indicator escherichia coli in raw meat at markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso," Journal of Food Protection, vol. 74, pp. 1547-1551, 2011.
Codex Alimentarius Commission (FAO & WHO), The tenth session of the codex committee on meat hygiene. New Zealand: Auckland University Press, 2005.
No any video found for this article.
Oyediran, Wasiu Oyeleke (2015). Assessment of Veterinary Inspection Practices on Quality of Beef Produced In Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research, 1(2): 36-45. DOI: 10.18488/journal.110/2015.1.2/22.214.171.124
Beef is an important animal protein source in Nigerian diet and its quality depends on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes. Hence, this study was carried out to assess veterinary inspection practices on quality of beef produced in Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. The findings of this study showed that the butchers were young with mean age of 40.51years and 95.70% were males. All the respondents strongly agreed that facilities such as lighting, carcass carriers, security fence and cooling facilities had never been provided in the study area. The result also showed that 45.70% of the respondents always cleaned the abattoir’s environment once in a week or at month end, and dungs and wastes were dumped around the abattoir. None of the respondents neither hang the beef in the open air nor put it in a deep freezer but always displayed the beef on the table for customers to see. However, all the respondents allowed customers to touch the beef. It was revealed that ante-mortem inspection was always carried out by the Veterinary Officers attached to the abattoirs. The prominent challenges to quality of beef produced are lack of essential infrastructure, training and workshop for the butchers on hygiene practices and use of modern processing equipment. It can be concluded that beef production is a lucrative venture in the study area but the hygiene practices is below Codex Alimentarius recommended standard. It is hereby recommended that the veterinary officers should intensify effort on ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections while health extension workers and other stakeholders should organize a training/workshop on hygiene practices that will improve the quality of beef produced in the study area.
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effects of veterinary practices on the quality of beef produced for public consumption in the rural areas. The study identified that the veterinary inspection of the beef was not comprehensive and the hygiene practices of butchers were shortcomings.
Examination of Oribatid Mites for Cysticercoids of Moniezia Sp
M. F. Barbara, H. Schatz, and M. Maraun, "Community structure, trophic position and reproductive mode of soil and bark-living oribatid mites in an alpine grassland ecosystem," Exp Appl Acarol, vol. 52, pp. 221–237, 1998.
E. J. L. Soulsby, Helminthes, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals. Bailliere: Tindall and Cassell, 1989.
P. A. Howe, "Coccidiosis in goats," in Proc. Refresher Course for Veterinarian, post Graduate Committee in Vet. Sci. University of Sydney, 1980, pp. 285- 290.
A. Berlese, "Apparecchio per raccogliere presto ed in gran numeropiccoliartropodi," Redia, vol. 2, pp. 85-89, 1905.
A. Tullgren, "Einsehreinfacher ausleseapparat fur terricole tierformen. Z.," Angew. Ent., vol. 4, pp. 149-150, 1918.
F. Grandjean, "Les mochlozetidae n. fam. (Oribates)," Acarologia, vol. 2, pp. 101–148, 1960.
H. G. Sengbusch, Review of oribatid mites-anoplocephalan tapeworm relationships (Acari: Oribatei: Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae). In: Dindal, D.L. (Eds). Biology of oribatid mites. Syracuse: State University of New York, 1977.
R. Schuster, L. Coetzee, and J. F. Putterill, "Oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) as intermediate hosts of tapeworms of the family anoplocephalidae (Cestoda) and the transmission of monieziaexpansacysticercoids in South Africa," Veterinary Research, vol. 67, p. 47, 2000.
D. Borcard and P. Legendre, "Environmental control and spatial structure in ecological communities: An example using oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatei)," Environmental and Ecological Statistics, vol. 1, pp. 37-61, 1994.
M. J. Mitchell, "Effects of physical parameters and food resources on oribatid mites in forest soils. In: Rodriguez, J.G. (Eds)," Recent Advances in Acarology, vol. 1, pp. 585-592, 1979.
J. Caley, "Ultrastructural studies of the cysticercoid of moniezia expansa (Anoplocephalidae) with special reference to the development of the cyst," Zeitschriftfür Parasitenkunde, vol. 38, pp. 251-262, 1975.
Reena K. K. , Jobin Thomas , Nirmal Chacko , Lucy Sabu , K. Devada (2015). Examination of Oribatid Mites for Cysticercoids of Moniezia Sp. International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research, 1(2): 31-35. DOI: 10.18488/journal.110/2015.1.2/126.96.36.199
Two hundred oribatid mites separated from the soil collected from the vicinity of the manure pits of Cattle and Goat farms under the Kerala Veterinary & Animal Sciences University, Mannuthy using Berlese apparatus. All the mites separated were identified upto family level as Mochlozetidae. On dissection of all the collected mites, one fully developed and an immature cysticercoid could be detected from only one mite.
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the role of intermediate host in spreading of cestodiasis. The infection status of intermediate host is the major risk factor for infection in definite host. So it is very important to know the prevalence of infection in intermediate host for taking proper control measures against the disease. Much work has not been done in this field so far. So this is a good initiative and work can be carried forward on a higher level.