International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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No. 1

Socio-Cultural Implications of Breast Feeding in Urban Area of Pakistan: (A Case Study of District Faisalabad)

Pages: 23-30
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Socio-Cultural Implications of Breast Feeding in Urban Area of Pakistan: (A Case Study of District Faisalabad)

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Muhammad Asim , Shahid Mahmood , Malik Muhammad Sohail , Farkhanda Anjum , Farhat Nazir

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Muhammad Asim , Shahid Mahmood , Malik Muhammad Sohail , Farkhanda Anjum , Farhat Nazir (2012). Socio-Cultural Implications of Breast Feeding in Urban Area of Pakistan: (A Case Study of District Faisalabad). International Journal of Management and Sustainability, 1(1): 23-30. DOI:
Breastfeeding is considered as the most economical and easily accessible complete nutrition for every new born child. Beneficial effects of breast feeding both for the mother and child are well-known. However, there is evidence that breast feeding is on the decline in many developing countries. The main objective of the present study was to explore the different socio-cultural issues which were associated with breast feeding practices. The universe of the present study was Faisalabad District, Pakistan. Multistage sampling technique was applied for the selection of the respondents. At first stage two towns were selected by using simple random sampling technique. At the second stage, four colonies were selected randomly. Convenient sampling was done to select the households. A sample of 120 married women was interviewed who have at least one breast feeding baby from each household. Data show that majority of the mother were in the opinion that breastfeeding is essential for their baby for their physical and mental growth. The researchers also found the main hurdles in the completion period of breastfeeding were poor socio-economic condition of mothers, lack of appropriate gap in birth space, lack of knowledge and awareness among mothers about the benefits of breastfeeding, poor health of mothers, maternal employment and cultural norms of the society. It is suggested that mothers should give proper knowledge and awareness about the benefits of breastfeeding for their child???s future survival.

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Attitude and Motivation in L2 Learning among Ummaster Students

Pages: 13-22
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Attitude and Motivation in L2 Learning among Ummaster Students

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Citation: 13

Xiang Yang (Alex)

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  1. Baker, C., (1992) Attitudes and Language.Multilingual Matters Ltd, Clevedon, UK.
  2. Gardner, Robert C. (2001, February). Integrative motivation: Past, present and future. Temple
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Xiang Yang (Alex) (2012). Attitude and Motivation in L2 Learning among Ummaster Students. International Journal of Management and Sustainability, 1(1): 13-22. DOI:
This mini research was conducted among UM(University of Malaya) students, in particular, non-English major master students. The research was under the main purpose of figuring out a quite simple question: with the same amount of time, learning opportunity and environmental factor, what makes some people acquire and learn the language betterthan the others? A quick answer is that "some people have the gift of languages, others do not, and the intriguing search for the gift or the so called ’knack’ by Gardner and Lambert (1972) mentioned that attitude and motivation could be the key to successful language learning.The hypothesis implies that learners with a positive attitude and high level of motivation, be it instrumental or integrative, will be successful in developing proficiency in the language provided with the strong set of verbal aptitude and intelligence. A questionnaire was delivered to about 20 UM master students for the research purpose, which revealed and confirmed the hypothesis in the sense that learners who were highly and positively involved in their English proficiency had positive attitude and highly motivated towards learning English. This study involved the correlation of various explanations for the apparent findings of the study. The findings led to a reconceptualization of attitude and motivation: The scope of this socio-affective factors can be seen from a learner’s standpoint and also, through its pedagogical implications.

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Perception And Management of Human Fertility: A Shona Landscape

Pages: 1-12
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Perception And Management of Human Fertility: A Shona Landscape

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Agrippa Chingombe , Mandova Evans , Simon Nenji

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  1. Asante, K.W. (2000) Zimbabwe Dance: Rhythmic Forces, Ancestral Voices-An Aesthetic Analysis, Trenton: African World Press, Inc.
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Agrippa Chingombe , Mandova Evans , Simon Nenji (2012). Perception And Management of Human Fertility: A Shona Landscape. International Journal of Management and Sustainability, 1(1): 1-12. DOI:
The history of the Shona people has it formally and informally that fertility is an issue of major concern to the couple, family and community. However, very little literature has been documented concerning the Shona worldview of fertility, as well as its causes and effects. Most of the knowledge and belief systems exist in oral form to the extent that, there is a temptation to exaggerate and mystify as well as misrepresent the concept and its practice. This makes it difficult for outsiders and other non-practising Shona people to appreciate the value of this real life-long African belief system, which has survived the test of time. The paper seeks to offer a philosophical insight and analysis of the perception and management of human fertility among the Shona people of Zimbabwe.

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