International Journal of Hydrology Research

Published by: Conscientia Beam
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No. 1

Purple-Blue Pigmentation Production as a Sign of Immune Response by Bleached Corals to Avoid Stress Caused by Elevated Sea Surface Temperature

Pages: 13-15
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Purple-Blue Pigmentation Production as a Sign of Immune Response by Bleached Corals to Avoid Stress Caused by Elevated Sea Surface Temperature

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.108.2019.41.13.15

CH. Ramesh , S. Koushik , T. Shunmugaraj , M.V. Ramana Murthy

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[1]          C. Ramesh, S. Koushik, T. Shunmugaraj, and M. V. R. Murthy, "Factors affecting coral reefs in the Gulf of Mannar," Journal of Wildlife Research, vol. 7, pp. 16-22, 2019.

[2]          C. V. Palmer, C. K. Modi, and L. D. Mydlarz, "Coral fluorescent proteins as antioxidants," Plos One, vol. 4, p. e7298, 2009. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007298.

[3]          C. D’Angelo, E. Smith, F. Oswald, J. Burt, D. Tchernov, and J. Wiedenmann, "Locally accelerated growth is part of the innate immune response and repair mechanisms in reef-building corals as detected by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like pigments," Coral Reefs, vol. 31, pp. 1045-1056, 2012. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-012-0926-8.

[4]          L. Bongiorni and B. Rinkevich, "The pink-blue spot syndrome in Acropora eurystoma (Eilat, Red Sea): A possible marker of stress?," Zoology, vol. 108, pp. 247-256, 2005. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.zool.2005.05.002.

[5]          E. G. Smith, C. D’Angelo, A. Salih, and J. Wiedenmann, "Screening by coral green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like chromoproteins supports a role in photoprotection of zooxanthellae," Coral Reefs, vol. 32, pp. 463-474, 2013. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-012-0994-9.

[6]          R. Sassi, C. F. C. Sassi, K. Gorlach-Lira, and W. K. Fitt, "Pigmentation changes in Siderastrea spp. During bleaching events in the costal reefs of Northeastern Brazil," Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research, vol. 43, pp. 176-185, 2015. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3856/vol43-issue1-fulltext-15.

CH. Ramesh , S. Koushik , T. Shunmugaraj , M.V. Ramana Murthy (2019). Purple-Blue Pigmentation Production as a Sign of Immune Response by Bleached Corals to Avoid Stress Caused by Elevated Sea Surface Temperature. International Journal of Hydrology Research, 4(1): 13-15. DOI: 10.18488/journal.108.2019.41.13.15
Coral reefs are extensively studied around the world with regard to their taxonomy, distribution, diversity, bleaching events, diseases, conservation, and restoration aspects. However, exhibition of blue pigmentation by corals under certain stressed condition such as high temperature and bleaching events has not been widely investigated. In the present study, during a massive bleaching event of coral reefs in 21 islands of Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, corals such as Acropora sp. and Turbinaria sp. and some other encrusting corals have displayed purple blue pigmentation in response to high temperature and to avoid complete bleaching of their food supplying symbiotic zooxanthellae. This documentation from this environment is being reported for the first time and thus further immunological and genomic studies are required to study the variation in the zooxanthellae in bleached and non-bleached corals as well as blue pigment showing and non-pigmented corals. The compound responsible for blue pigmentation is needed to be analyzed further which could be employed for other industrial and biomedical applications.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the purple blue pigmentation displayed by corals such as Acropora sp. and Turbinaria sp. and some other encrusting corals in response to high temperature. This is a sign of adaptation of corals to avoid stress and survive from massive bleaching event occurred in Gulf of Mannar, India.

Estimation of Suspended Sediment Load in the Ressoul Watershed, Algeria

Pages: 1-12
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Estimation of Suspended Sediment Load in the Ressoul Watershed, Algeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.108.2019.41.1.12

Kamel Khanchoul , Skander Khanchoul

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Kamel Khanchoul , Skander Khanchoul (2019). Estimation of Suspended Sediment Load in the Ressoul Watershed, Algeria. International Journal of Hydrology Research, 4(1): 1-12. DOI: 10.18488/journal.108.2019.41.1.12
Sediment load and its response to the variations of the hydrological elements are important to understand the phenomena of erosion. This study was fulfilled with the aim of developing a model to predict sediment load using sediment rating curve for the Ain Berda gauging station. The model was developed based on the available streamflow discharge and suspended sediment concentration data during sampled storm events over 39 year-period in the Ressoul watershed. Relationships between sediment concentration and water discharge were used according to single and rising-falling stage ratings to determine the best model for sediment load prediction. Additionally, a technique was devised to correct for log-transform bias on the sediment rating curves. The mean annual sediment yield during high and medium high flood events was 302 T km-2 yr-1. The high sediment loads in the study basin could be explained by the intensity of rain, the aggressiveness of the flows, the topography and the availability of sediments from hillslopes. The sediment load was dominated by winter and spring seasons accounting for 89% of the annual load. A high sediment supply in winter might confirm the intense geomorphic action caused by high intensity rainfall, low vegetation cover, and heavy machine activity in the agricultural fields. Following watershed management for local communities may bring multiple benefits. The adoption of suitable measures for soil conservation should reduce soil erosion and improve the livelihoods of the inhabitants. This study can serve as a reference for policymakers and planners.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes on the existing literature on the estimation of suspended sediment yield using rating curve technique. The study outlines the analysis of some factors of erosion for estimating impacts of conservation methods on stream flow and sediment yield.