Journal of Forests

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2409-3807
Print ISSN: 2413-8398
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No. 2

Tree Diversity, Conservation Status and Utilization Potentials of Shasha Rainforest Reserve, Southwestern, Nigeria

Pages: 182-190
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Tree Diversity, Conservation Status and Utilization Potentials of Shasha Rainforest Reserve, Southwestern, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.82.182.190

O.D. Akinyemi , A.J. Oloketuyi , G.O. Akinyemi , O.T. Adeoye , O.A. Aina-Oduntan , O.R. Olatidoye

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O.D. Akinyemi , A.J. Oloketuyi , G.O. Akinyemi , O.T. Adeoye , O.A. Aina-Oduntan , O.R. Olatidoye (2021). Tree Diversity, Conservation Status and Utilization Potentials of Shasha Rainforest Reserve, Southwestern, Nigeria. Journal of Forests, 8(2): 182-190. DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.82.182.190
An inventory of the entire tree species ?10cm diameter at breast height (dbh) was carried out within Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN) investigation 133 Shasha in Osun State, Nigeria. This study was carried out to ascertain the tree species diversity, conservation status and utilization potentials in the study area. The results were obtained from 16 sample plots of 50×50m in four tracts located through cluster sampling technique. In all, an average total of 295 stands distributed among 66 tree species and 28 families were encountered. High value of Shannon-Weinner index H'=3.73 and Evenness of E=0.89 were obtained for the reserve. At present, only few trees have attained the merchantable size of 48cm dbh. The 63 tree species in the study site were categorized into four groups namely, stable, vulnerable, endangered and threatened status. The result revealed that stable group had 1.59%, vulnerable 4.76%, endangered 44.44% and threatened 49.21%. Result of the Utilization potentials revealed that utility classes 7 - 8 accounted for 55.6% (comprises of tree species with no potential use for sawn timber), while 45.4%. of trees in classes 1 – 6 comprises of trees with timber potentials. This study highlighted species population diversity, conservation status and utilization potentials of the study site and called for ecological application in the management of forest reserves in Nigeria.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on the diversity and conservation of trees in southwestern forest reserves.

Challenges of Conserving and Co-Managing Khadimnagar National Park and Ratargul Fresh Water Swamp Forest in Bangladesh

Pages: 171-181
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Challenges of Conserving and Co-Managing Khadimnagar National Park and Ratargul Fresh Water Swamp Forest in Bangladesh

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.82.171.181

Md. Mahfuz-Ur-Rahman , Tanmoy Dey

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Md. Mahfuz-Ur-Rahman , Tanmoy Dey (2021). Challenges of Conserving and Co-Managing Khadimnagar National Park and Ratargul Fresh Water Swamp Forest in Bangladesh. Journal of Forests, 8(2): 171-181. DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.82.171.181
National Parks are protected areas conserving all types of flora, fauna and their habitats regardless of generic diversification. In Bangladesh, protected area managers face difficulties to conserve these areas. This study is formulated to find out those existing difficulties against effective co-management of natural resources based on the local people’s perception. A purposive sampling is followed by a semi-structured interview to gather data from the field level of Khadimnagar National Park and Ratargul Fresh Water Swamp Forest from September 2019 to December 2019 by interviewing 100 local people for RFWSF and KNP on the basis of a qualitative research method. Both inhabitants and the Forest Department are found to be responsible for inhibiting the effective management of the subjected areas meanwhile difficulties related to motivation, cordiality, alternative job generation, financial support to management authority, tourism management and resource extraction from forests mainly prevail. To ensure substantial sustainability, both of the actors should come forward to find out a way to get rid of this devastation and to ameliorate the socio-economic condition of these areas. Arranging more conferences to raise motivation, awareness about the forest offenses and generating alternative sources of income can be counted as a strategy to reduce pressure on both forests.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the causes of prevailing drawbacks of co-management in two ecologically valued forests and it will be supportive to forest management and policy makers for ameliorating the status of co-management in the regarded and other protected areas in Bangladesh.

Analysis of Arable Farmers Agroforestry Practices in Bokkos Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria

Pages: 161-170
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Analysis of Arable Farmers Agroforestry Practices in Bokkos Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.82.161.170

Onuwa, G.C , Adepoju, A.O , Mailumo, S.S

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Onuwa, G.C , Adepoju, A.O , Mailumo, S.S (2021). Analysis of Arable Farmers Agroforestry Practices in Bokkos Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria. Journal of Forests, 8(2): 161-170. DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.82.161.170

The need to increase arable crop production to keep pace with food demands for a growing population without degrading ecosystems can only be achieved through adoption of agroforestry. Agroforestry practices help to achieve food security, biodiversity, conservation and land sustainability. The 94 famers were chosen using a multistage sampling process. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Most (74%) of respondents practiced home gardening. The significant benefits derived from agroforestry were; food/fruits (97%) and soil improvement/conservation (88%). The mean adoption index was 0.27. The log-likelihood obtained from Tobit was 67.92 indicating that the independent variables significantly explained the variation in the farmers adoption decision. Educational level (?=0.426) and farm experience (?=0.597) were both positive and statistically significant at ??0.05; farm income (?=0.568) was significant at ??0.01, and extension contact (?=-0.887, ??0.01) was negative and had a negative impact on agroforestry adoption. The constraints affecting the practice of agroforestry among arable farmers were; poor policies, inadequate extension services, insufficient improved tree species among others. The study recommends intensification of extension services and provision of incentives to farmers to promote agroforestry adoption to achieve increased food production and sustainable land-use systems.

Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have empirically investigated agroforestry practices among arable farmers for sustainable land-use systems.

Effect of Desiccation and Storage Environment on Longevity of Ehretia cymosa Thonn. Seeds

Pages: 153-160
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Effect of Desiccation and Storage Environment on Longevity of Ehretia cymosa Thonn. Seeds

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.82.153.160

Peter Murithi Angaine , Stephen Muriithi Ndungu , Alice Adongo Onyango , Jesse O. Owino

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Peter Murithi Angaine , Stephen Muriithi Ndungu , Alice Adongo Onyango , Jesse O. Owino (2021). Effect of Desiccation and Storage Environment on Longevity of Ehretia cymosa Thonn. Seeds. Journal of Forests, 8(2): 153-160. DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.82.153.160
Globally, forestry faces challenges in the availability of seeds due to limited knowledge on seed handling of various species. Forestry seeds are constantly being reviewed and classified as either recalcitrant, intermediate, or orthodox based on their storage behavior. It is essential to understand the tree seed storage behavior to maintain seed viability and thus minimize seed losses. There is scanty literature combining factors of seed moisture content (6%, 9%, 12%, 15%, and 20%), seed storage temperature (20oC, 5oC and -20oC), seed storage duration (1, 4, 9 and 12 months), and germination in different sites with varying environmental variables. Ehretia cymosa is important in the Afromontane forestry landscape as a medicinal, rehabilitation, and conservation species. This study conducted desiccation and storage studies and their influence on the viability of E. cymosa seeds. The study sought to determine the optimum conditions for the storage of Ehretia cymosa that maintains viability. This study observed that E. cymosa dried to seed moisture content of 6%, stored for 12 months at 20oC and sown in the laboratory had the highest germination performance (27.6 ± 3.18%) (p<0.05). This confirms that E. cymosa seeds exhibit orthodox storage behavior. The authors recommend longer storage studies (>12months) to determine the actual longevity of the seeds of this species. The significance of these results would be useful for foresters and farmers that would need to use this species for various purposes.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that Ehretia cymosa seeds exhibit orthodox storage behavior. This finding is important since it will improve the current practice of handling and storage of E. cymosa seeds to enhance viability and minimize seed losses.

A Survey of Wood Borer Apate terebrans Tunnels on Terminalia mantaly in Nigeria with Special Reference to the Niger Delta Region

Pages: 141-152
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.82.141.152

Gabriel A. Adedeji , Adedapo A. Aiyeloja , Usman Zakka , Comfort O. Ayemere

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Gabriel A. Adedeji , Adedapo A. Aiyeloja , Usman Zakka , Comfort O. Ayemere (2021). A Survey of Wood Borer Apate terebrans Tunnels on Terminalia mantaly in Nigeria with Special Reference to the Niger Delta Region. Journal of Forests, 8(2): 141-152. DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.82.141.152
This study was conducted to count Apate terebrans opened tunnels in Terminalia mantaly at the 3 Parks of the University of Port Harcourt. All trees were assessed visually for the presence and absence of tunnels, frass, and exudates during the 6-months (January-July) field survey in 2018. The mean numbers of tunnels/tree were 16.12±2.13 from 58 trees representing 19.9% of 291 total trees. The spread of attack was fairly scattered and more closely associated with diameter at breast height (DBH) of tree (?2= 12.763, df = 4, ?0.012*). While a majority (67.0%) of the trees experienced breaking reflecting both the immediate and residual impact of opened and closed tunnels, respectively, 10.7% experienced tearing of branches, and 5.5% experienced both breaking and tearing. Strong wind was found as a contributory factor to breaking and tearing. The findings suggest T. mantaly as a poor adaptable environmental species in Nigeria ecosystems and its current utilisation as ornamental tree may be revisited.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the resurgence of wood borer, Apate terebrans and its impacts on the Terminalia mantaly used as one of the current popular urban trees in Nigeria.

Phytogeographic of Bromelia L. (Bromeliaceae) in the State Paraiba Brazil

Pages: 131-140
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Phytogeographic of Bromelia L. (Bromeliaceae) in the State Paraiba Brazil

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.82.131.140

Debora Coelho Moura , Maira Suenia Cavalcante de Souza , Thais Mara Souza Pereira , Ailson de Lima Marques , Ricardo Ambrosio de Soares de Pontes , Maria de Fatima Araujo Lucena , Cassio Ricardo Goncalves da Costa

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Debora Coelho Moura , Maira Suenia Cavalcante de Souza , Thais Mara Souza Pereira , Ailson de Lima Marques , Ricardo Ambrosio de Soares de Pontes , Maria de Fatima Araujo Lucena , Cassio Ricardo Goncalves da Costa (2021). Phytogeographic of Bromelia L. (Bromeliaceae) in the State Paraiba Brazil. Journal of Forests, 8(2): 131-140. DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.82.131.140
The Bromelia (Bromeliaceae) is part of the Poales taxonomic group, distributed in the Neotropical Ecosystems of South America, from sea level to altitudes of 5,000 meters in the Andes. In the Brazilian territory there were two settlements, one directly from the plateau of the Guianas and another across the Andes. The family stands out as one of the main taxa of the Brazilian flora, sheltering about 40% of the species of this family, in which 46 genera are recorded, of these 20 are endemic. In the state of Paraíba, because it has three distinct climatic regions, it originates a different phytogeographic distribution of this Family, so this study aims to perform a phytogeographic analysis of Bromelia L. (Bromeliaceae), to understand the distribution of the genus, registered in the state of Paraíba, eastern portion of the Northeast. Understand the gender distribution, registered in the state of Paraíba, eastern portion of the Northeast. In this study, two species, Bromelia karatas L. and Bromelia laciniosa Mart, were identified for the genus B. Karatas L. was found in the wetlands of Agreste and Litoral and also in the region of Sertão Paraíba state, in specific areas. Whereas, B. laciniosa, only in the regions of the Cariris Velhos, tectonic valley of the Curimataú and Seridó, that are inserted in the field of the Caatinga, but with influence of edaphoclimatic variabilities.
Contribution/ Originality
This is the first research that deals with the phytogeographic distribution of Bromeliaceae in the state of Paraiba. In the context of the Northeast region of Brazil, this research will help to compare these data with those from other states and discuss the distribution whit other climatic and thermal characteristics, in addition, these two species have local environmental and cultural features that encourage knowledge of their spatiality.

Influence of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. Cones and Seed Characterization on Germination in Kenya

Pages: 123-130
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Influence of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. Cones and Seed Characterization on Germination in Kenya

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.82.123.130

Peter Murithi Angaine , Alice Adongo Onyango , Stephen Muriithi Ndungu , Shadrack Kinyua Inoti , Jesse O. Owino

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Peter Murithi Angaine , Alice Adongo Onyango , Stephen Muriithi Ndungu , Shadrack Kinyua Inoti , Jesse O. Owino (2021). Influence of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. Cones and Seed Characterization on Germination in Kenya. Journal of Forests, 8(2): 123-130. DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.82.123.130
Cupressus lusitanica is a key plantation species with many uses leading to demand for seed. This species produces seeds within cones, which are collected for seed extraction. There are variations in seed collection and handling which compromise quality. Few studies focus on cone morphometry and seed characterization, thereby causing a gap in quality improvement through packaging and subsequent germination. Fifty cones were collected from each of the thirty identified trees within a clonal seed orchard. Cone characterization, seed extraction and germination were performed in the laboratory. This was a factorial experiment with three factors: cone diameter, seed diameter and seed density and their influences on germination. The present study separated the cones by diameter (20mm sieve) and weight. Seed were sieved (2mm sieve) weighed, floated and germinated. The results showed that seed size and density heavily impacted on germination and thereby showing that sorting through sieving and floatation would provide a low cost technique for seed quality improvement. The technique in the present study improved germination from 25% to 50%, and also reduced the number of seeds per kilogram from 290,000 to 105,000.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that C. lusitanica seed size and density heavily impacted on germination and thereby showing that sorting through sieving and floatation would provide a low-cost technique for seed quality improvement.

Wood Density of Lower Stratum Trees in a Semi-Deciduous Tropical Forest of Cameroon

Pages: 109-122
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.82.109.122

Ntonmen Yonkeu Amandine Flore , Zapfack Louis , Chimi Djomo Cedric , Kabelong Banoho Louis-Paul Roger , Barnabas Neba Nfornkah , Tsopmejio Temfack Ingrid , Nanfack Arsel D Estaing , Ngoukwa Guylene , Tchoupou Votio Mireil , Inimbock Sorel Leocadie , Madountsap Tagnang Nadege , Mounmemi Kpoumie Hubert , Tabue Mbobda Roger Bruno

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Ntonmen Yonkeu Amandine Flore , Zapfack Louis , Chimi Djomo Cedric , Kabelong Banoho Louis-Paul Roger , Barnabas Neba Nfornkah , Tsopmejio Temfack Ingrid , Nanfack Arsel D Estaing , Ngoukwa Guylene , Tchoupou Votio Mireil , Inimbock Sorel Leocadie , Madountsap Tagnang Nadege , Mounmemi Kpoumie Hubert , Tabue Mbobda Roger Bruno (2021). Wood Density of Lower Stratum Trees in a Semi-Deciduous Tropical Forest of Cameroon. Journal of Forests, 8(2): 109-122. DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.82.109.122
The lower forest stratum is often neglected in trees wood density studies. The aim of this study was to investigate wood density of lower stratum forest in a semi-deciduous rain forest of Cameroon. The data was collected from 30 random squares plots of 100m² and 200m. The wood density was assessed using immersion method. Wood samples were collected at three levels including: the base, the trunk and branches of trees. Measurement variables collected include the diameter, height and crown diameter. These variables were correlated to wood density using the Pearson coefficient. A total of 1498 samples from 136 tree species were collected. The wood density from these samples varied from 0.156 g.cm-³ to 0.914 g.cm-³, with an average of 0.561 g.cm-³. ANOVA test showed that, wood density decreased significantly from 0.609 to 0.571 and then to 0.509 g.cm-³ for the base, trunk and branches respectively. Interspecific analysis showed that wood density was significantly different between species (ANOVA, p?0.001). With respect of biological type, the mean wood density of 27 understory tree species (exclusively) found was 0.562 g.cm-³. Wood density of 56 tropical forest tree species hitherto unknown in the literature were determined. The Pearson correlation between measurement variables and wood density was close to zero; nevertheless, it varied in function of the tree species. This study suggested that more investigations of wood density of tropical forest trees should be conducted, particularly in the Congo Basin forests where an important diversity of medium and lower forest stratum trees is expected.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature concerning wood density of lower stratum forest in semi-deciduous forest of Congo Basin for which limited information are available.