International Journal of Geography and Geology

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No. 1

Land Use Change Modelling In Developing Countries: Issues And Prospects

Pages: 23-41
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Land Use Change Modelling In Developing Countries: Issues And Prospects

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Citation: 1

Peter Elias , Samuel Dekolo , Olatunji Babatola

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  1. Abel, P.D. (1989). Water Pollution Biology.Ellis Horwood Publishers, Chicher. 231pp.
  2. Abou EL-Naga, E. H.; EL-Moselhy, K. M.; Hamed, M. A., (2005) Toxicity of cadmium and copper and their effect on some biochemical parameters of marine fish Mugil seheliEgyptian. J. Aquat. Res., Vol.31, No.2, pp.60-71
  3. Adami, G. M.; Barbieri, P.; Fabiani, M.; Piselli, S.; Predonzani, S.; Reisenhofer, E., (2002). Levels of cadmium and zinc in hepatopancreas of reared Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Gulf of Trieste (Italy). Chemosphere, Vol.48, No.7, pp.671 – 677.
  4. Adams, S.H. (1990) Status and Use of Biological Indicators for Evaluating the Effects of Stress on Fish. In: Biological Indicators of Stress in Fish. (Edited by S. M. Adams), American Fisheries Symposium 8: 1 - 8, Bethesday, Maryland.
  5. Adeniyi AA, Yusuf KA, Okedeyi OO (2008) Assessment of the exposure of two fish species to metals pollution in the Ogun rivercatchments, Ketu, Lagos, Nigeria. Environ. Monit.Assess., Vol.137, pp.451- 458
  6. Aucoin, J.; Blanchand, R.; Billiot, C., (1999) Trace metals in fish and sediments from lake Boeuf, South Eastern Louisiana. Micro. Chem. J., Vol.62, No.2, pp.299-307
  7. Awofolu OR, Mbolekwa Z, Mtshemla V, Fatoki OS (2005) Levels of trace metals in water and sediments from Tyume river and its effectson an irrigated farmland. Water SA., Vol.31, pp.87-94.
  8. Basa, Siraj, P.; Usha Rani, A., (2003). Cadmium induced antioxidant defense mechanism in freshwater teleost Oreochromis mossambicus (Tilapia). Eco.Toxicol.Environ.Saf., Vol.56, No.2, pp.218 – 221.
  9. Boyden, C. R.; Aston, S. R.; Thornton, I., (1979) Tidal and seasonal variation of trace elements in two Cornish estuaries.Estuarine Coast Mar. Sci., Vol.9, No.3, pp.303-317 (15 pages).
  10. Brown, V., Shurben, D., Miller, W. and Crane, M. (1994). Cadmium toxicity to rainbow trout Nocorhynchus mykiss Walbaum and brown trout Salmo trutta L. over extended exposure periods.Ecotoxicity and Environmental Safety. Vol.29, pp.34-46.
  11. Canli, M., (1995). Natural occurrence of metallothionein like proteins in the hepatopancreas of the Norway lobster Nephrops Norvegicus and effects of Cd, Cu, and Zn exposures on levels of the metal bound on metallothionein. Turk. J. Zool., Vol.19, pp.313-321.
  12. Clarkson, T. W., (1998). Human toxicology of mercury. J.Trace. Elem. Exp. Med., Vol.11, No.2-3, pp.303-317.
  13. Dickman, M. D.; Leung, K. M., (1998) Mercury and organo chlorine exposure from fish consumption in Hong Kong. Chemosphere, Vol, 37, No.5, pp.991-1015.
  14. Enk, M .D and Mathis, B. J. (1977) Distribution of Cadmium and Lead in a Stream Ecosystem. Hydrobiologia, Vol. 52, pp.153 – 158.
  15. ETPS, (1995): Environmental testing of pollution status in Lake Temsah, Abu-Attwa water environment on fisheries resources, The Environmentalist, Vol.23, No.4, pp.297-306.
  16. F.E.P.A.(Federal Environmental Protection Agency). (2003); Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria. 238pp.
  17. FAO/SIDA (1983) Manual of Methods in Aquatic Environmental Research, part 9. Analyses of metals and organochlorines in fish . FAO fisheries Technical Paper, 212. Federal Environmental
  18. Farkas, A., Salanki, J.; Specziar, A., (2002) Relation between growth and the heavy metal concentration in organs of bream Abramis brama L. populating lake Balaton. Arch. Environ. Contam.Toxicol., Vol.43, No.2, pp.236-243.
  19. Ferguson, H. W., (1989). Systematic pathology of fish. Ames.: Iowa State University, Press.
  20. Filipovic, V.; Raspor, B., (2003) Metallothionein and metal levels in cytosol of liver, kidney and brain in relation to growth parameters of Mullus surmuletus and Liza aurata.From the eastern Adriatic Sea. Water Res., Vol.37, No.13, pp.3253-3262.
  21. Forstner, U. and Wittmann, G. T. W. (1981) Metal pollution in the Aquatic Environment. Springer-Verlag. Berlin, Heideberg New York. 486pp
  22. Förstner, U.; Wittman, G. T. W., (1983) Metal Pollution in the Aquatic Environment. Springer Heidelberg., 486.
  23. Gbem T.T, Balogun J.K, Lawal F.A, Annune P.A.(2001). Trace metal accumulation in Clarias gariepinus (Teugels) exposed to sublethal levels of tannery effluent. Sci Total Environ. Vol.23,  No.271(1-3), pp.1-9.
  24. Hynes, H.B.N. (1970). The ecology of running waters, Liverpool University Press
  25. Idodo-Umeh, G. (2000) Freshwater fishes of Nigeria (Taxonomy, Ecological Notes, Diet and Utilization). Idodo-Umeh Publishers, Benin City, Nigeria.
  26. Ikem A, Egiebor NO, Nyavor K (2003) Trace elements in water, fish and sediment from Tuskegee Lake, South eastern U.S.A. Water, AirSoil Poll., Vol.149, pp.51-75.
  27. International Symposium on Restoration of Lakes and Wetlands: Proceedings of Lake 2000,
  28. Jennings G.D and Sneed R.E (1996). Nitrate in drinking water, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, Publication Number: AG pp. 473-474.
  29. Lee, H.S., Hwang, P.P. and Lin, H.C. (1996) Morphological changes of integumental chloride cells to ambient cadmium during the early development of the telecast, Oreochromis mossambicus. Environ. Boil. Of Fishes. Vol.45, pp.95-102.
  30. Luoma, S. N.; (1990). Processes affecting metal concentrations in estuarine and coastal marine sediments. Heavy metal in the marine Environment., CRC press., Boca Raton, FL, pp.51-66.
  31. Mayers, T. R.; Hendricks, J. D., (1984) Histopathology. In GM Rand, S.R. Petrocelli, Eds. Fundamental of aquatic
  32. Melancon, M.J. (1995) Bioindicators Used in Aquatic and Terrestrial Monitoring. In: Handbook of Ecotoxicology. (Eds. D.J. Hoffman, B.A. Rattner, G.A. BuKirkhan. M. B. 1983., Jr. and J. Cairns, Jr.), Lewis Publishers, London, pp. 220 – 240.
  33. Meybeck, M. (1996) River water quality: Global ranges, time and space variabilities, proposal for some redefinitions, Internationale Vereinigung fur theoretische und angewandte Limnologie, Vol.26, pp.81-96
  34. Mourad, F.A.  (1996)  M. Sc. thesis. National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF) Suez
  35. Nadia, B. E.; Badr Anwar, A.; El-Fiky Alaa R.; Mostafa, Bandr A.; Al-Mur., (2009) Metal pollution records in core sediments of some Red Sea coastal areas, Kingdom of SaudiArabia. Environ. Monit.Assess., Vol.155, No.1-4, pp.509-526 (18 pages).
  36. Nouri, J.; Karbassi, A. R.; Mirkia, S., (2008) Environmental management of coastal regions in the Caspian Sea. Int. J.Environ. Sci. Tech., Vol.5, No.1, pp.43-52
  37. Nouri, J.; Mahvi, A. H.; Babaei, A.; Ahmadpour, E., (2006) Regional pattern distribution of groundwater fluoride in the Shush aquifer of Khuzestan County IranFluoride. Fluoride., Vol.39, No.4, pp.321-325
  38. O.J. Aderinola, E.O. Clarke, O.M. Olarinmoye, V. Kusemiju and  M.A. Anatekhai, (2009) Heavy Metals in Surface Water, Sediments, Fish and Perwinklesof Lagos Lagoon. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., Vol.5, No.5, pp.609-617.
  39. Olaifa, F. G.; Olaifa, A. K.; Onwude, T. E., (2004) Lethal and sublethal effects of copper to the African Cat fish (Clarias gariepnus). Afr. J. Biomed. Res., Vol.7, pp.65-70.
  40. Pekey, H., (2006) Heavy metal pollution assessment in sediments of Izmit Bay, Turkey. Environ. Monitor. Assess.,Vol.123, No.1-3, pp.219-231
  41. Rehwoldt, R. and Karimian-Teherani, D. (1976) Uptake and effect of cadmium on zebrafish.Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology. Vol.15, No.4, pp.442-446.
  42. Samarghandi, M. R.; Nouri, J.; Mesdaghinia, A. R.; Mahvi, A.H.; Naseri, S.; Vaezi, F., (2007) Efficiency removal of phenol, lead and cadmium by means of UV/TiO2/H2O2processes. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., Vol.4, No.1, pp.10-25
  43. Sudhira H.S. and Kumar V.S. (2000) Monitoring of lake water quality in Mysore City. In:
  44. Tam, N. F. Y.; Wong, Y. S., (2000) Spatial variation of heavy metals in surface sediments of Hong Kong mangrove swamps.Environ.Pollut., Vol.110, No.2, pp.195-205
  45. Tort, L.; Torres, P., (1988) The effects of sub lethal concentration of cadmium on hematological parameters in the dog fish, Scyliorhinus Caniccula. J. Fish. Biol., Vol.32, No.2, pp.277-282.
  46. TYLER G (1972) Heavy metals pollute nature, may reduce productivity. Ambio Vol.1, No.2, pp.52-59.
  47. Vinodhini, R.; Narayanan, M., (2008) Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organs of fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio (Common carp). Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., Vol.5, No.2, pp.179-182
  48. Walker, D.J.; Hurl, S. (2008) The reduction of heavy metals in a storm water wetland.Ecological Engineering, v. 18, p. 407-414, 2002.Adefemi S O, Asaolu S S and Olaofe O, Res J Environ Sci., Vol.2, No.2, pp.151-155.
  49. Waqar, A., (2006) Levels of selected heavy metals in Tuna fish.Arab. J. Sci. Eng., Vol.31, No.1A, pp.89–92.
  50. WHO (World Health Organization) (1985) Guidelines for drinking water quality.Vol. 1. Recommendations, W.H.O. Geneva. 130pp.
  51. Yong, R.N.; Mohamed, A.M.O. and Warkentin, B.P. (1992) Principles of contaminant transport in soils. Developments in Geotechnical Engineering, 73.Elservier Science Publishers B.V Amsterdam.The Netherlands 327pp.
  52. Yousuf, M. H. A.; El-Shahawi., (1999) Trace metals in Lethrinuslentjan fish from Arabian Gulf: Metal accumulation in Kidney and Heart Tissues. Bull. Environ. Contam.Toxicol., Vol.62, No.3, pp.293-300.
  53. Yusuf KA, Osibanjo O (2006) Trace metals in water and sediments from Ologe lagoon, southwestern Nigeria. Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res., Vol.49, pp.88-89.
  54. Zvinowanda, C. M.; Okonkwo, J. O.; Shabalala, P. N.; Agyei, N.M., (2009) A novel adsorbent for heavy metal remediation in aqueous environments. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech. Vol.6, No.3, pp.425-434
No any video found for this article.
Peter Elias , Samuel Dekolo , Olatunji Babatola (2012). Land Use Change Modelling In Developing Countries: Issues And Prospects. International Journal of Geography and Geology, 1(1): 23-41. DOI:
The growth of world population has been of serious concern in the last few decades. Of particular worry is how earth’s resources will match the concentration of human populations especially in developing countries. Associated with these are issues of urbanization, global warming and climate change which are also expected to have more impacts on poor peoples and places in developing countries. Responding to these issues has been problematic as we do not know expertly what will be the future scenarios especially in developing countries. It will be interesting to know the future trajectories of population growth, urbanization, urban land change (land use and land cover), and the socioeconomic conditions of developing countries. To this end various models have been evolved overtime for urban land use change forecasting but with more application in developed countries. How do we then make these urban change models more applicable to solving practical issues especially in developing countries? It is pertinent therefore to examine the current knowledge about these models; and to assess their usefulness, challenges and prospects in developing countries. It is against this backdrop that this paper by using extensive literature review examines urban land use change and modeling in developing countries. The historical developments of models was examined with the view to describing, classifying and characterizing the existing models, identifying the limitations to their adoption by decision makers, and suggesting ways to strengthen their relevance and applicability in developing countries. It concludes that models should be designed to clearly communicate their outputs to the practical users/policy decision makers. Besides, it suggests that since it may be difficult to calibrate models to have standard measurements or procedures, each region such as the developing countries should be treated in the context of its uniqueness with respect to urban dynamics, ecology and metabolism.

Contribution/ Originality

Trace Metal Distribution in Surface Water, Sediment, and Tissues of Freshwater Catfish (Clarias. Gariepinus), From Oke- Afa Canal, Lagos Nigeria

Pages: 10-22
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Trace Metal Distribution in Surface Water, Sediment, and Tissues of Freshwater Catfish (Clarias. Gariepinus), From Oke- Afa Canal, Lagos Nigeria

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Search :
Microsoft Academic Search
Cite

Citation: 7

Aderinola, O.J , Kusemiju, V , Clarke, E. O

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

  1. Abel, P.D. (1989). Water Pollution Biology.Ellis Horwood Publishers, Chicher. 231pp.
  2. Abou EL-Naga, E. H.; EL-Moselhy, K. M.; Hamed, M. A., (2005) Toxicity of cadmium and copper and their effect on some biochemical parameters of marine fish Mugil seheliEgyptian. J. Aquat. Res., Vol.31, No.2, pp.60-71
  3. Adami, G. M.; Barbieri, P.; Fabiani, M.; Piselli, S.; Predonzani, S.; Reisenhofer, E., (2002). Levels of cadmium and zinc in hepatopancreas of reared Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Gulf of Trieste (Italy). Chemosphere, Vol.48, No.7, pp.671 – 677.
  4. Adams, S.H. (1990) Status and Use of Biological Indicators for Evaluating the Effects of Stress on Fish. In: Biological Indicators of Stress in Fish. (Edited by S. M. Adams), American Fisheries Symposium 8: 1 - 8, Bethesday, Maryland.
  5. Adeniyi AA, Yusuf KA, Okedeyi OO (2008) Assessment of the exposure of two fish species to metals pollution in the Ogun rivercatchments, Ketu, Lagos, Nigeria. Environ. Monit.Assess., Vol.137, pp.451- 458
  6. Aucoin, J.; Blanchand, R.; Billiot, C., (1999) Trace metals in fish and sediments from lake Boeuf, South Eastern Louisiana. Micro. Chem. J., Vol.62, No.2, pp.299-307
  7. Awofolu OR, Mbolekwa Z, Mtshemla V, Fatoki OS (2005) Levels of trace metals in water and sediments from Tyume river and its effectson an irrigated farmland. Water SA., Vol.31, pp.87-94.
  8. Basa, Siraj, P.; Usha Rani, A., (2003). Cadmium induced antioxidant defense mechanism in freshwater teleost Oreochromis mossambicus (Tilapia). Eco.Toxicol.Environ.Saf., Vol.56, No.2, pp.218 – 221.
  9. Boyden, C. R.; Aston, S. R.; Thornton, I., (1979) Tidal and seasonal variation of trace elements in two Cornish estuaries.Estuarine Coast Mar. Sci., Vol.9, No.3, pp.303-317 (15 pages).
  10. Brown, V., Shurben, D., Miller, W. and Crane, M. (1994). Cadmium toxicity to rainbow trout Nocorhynchus mykiss Walbaum and brown trout Salmo trutta L. over extended exposure periods.Ecotoxicity and Environmental Safety. Vol.29, pp.34-46.
  11. Canli, M., (1995). Natural occurrence of metallothionein like proteins in the hepatopancreas of the Norway lobster Nephrops Norvegicus and effects of Cd, Cu, and Zn exposures on levels of the metal bound on metallothionein. Turk. J. Zool., Vol.19, pp.313-321.
  12. Clarkson, T. W., (1998). Human toxicology of mercury. J.Trace. Elem. Exp. Med., Vol.11, No.2-3, pp.303-317.
  13. Dickman, M. D.; Leung, K. M., (1998) Mercury and organo chlorine exposure from fish consumption in Hong Kong. Chemosphere, Vol, 37, No.5, pp.991-1015.
  14. Enk, M .D and Mathis, B. J. (1977) Distribution of Cadmium and Lead in a Stream Ecosystem. Hydrobiologia, Vol. 52, pp.153 – 158.
  15. ETPS, (1995): Environmental testing of pollution status in Lake Temsah, Abu-Attwa water environment on fisheries resources, The Environmentalist, Vol.23, No.4, pp.297-306.
  16. F.E.P.A.(Federal Environmental Protection Agency). (2003); Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria. 238pp.
  17. FAO/SIDA (1983) Manual of Methods in Aquatic Environmental Research, part 9. Analyses of metals and organochlorines in fish . FAO fisheries Technical Paper, 212. Federal Environmental
  18. Farkas, A., Salanki, J.; Specziar, A., (2002) Relation between growth and the heavy metal concentration in organs of bream Abramis brama L. populating lake Balaton. Arch. Environ. Contam.Toxicol., Vol.43, No.2, pp.236-243.
  19. Ferguson, H. W., (1989). Systematic pathology of fish. Ames.: Iowa State University, Press.
  20. Filipovic, V.; Raspor, B., (2003) Metallothionein and metal levels in cytosol of liver, kidney and brain in relation to growth parameters of Mullus surmuletus and Liza aurata.From the eastern Adriatic Sea. Water Res., Vol.37, No.13, pp.3253-3262.
  21. Forstner, U. and Wittmann, G. T. W. (1981) Metal pollution in the Aquatic Environment. Springer-Verlag. Berlin, Heideberg New York. 486pp
  22. Förstner, U.; Wittman, G. T. W., (1983) Metal Pollution in the Aquatic Environment. Springer Heidelberg., 486.
  23. Gbem T.T, Balogun J.K, Lawal F.A, Annune P.A.(2001). Trace metal accumulation in Clarias gariepinus (Teugels) exposed to sublethal levels of tannery effluent. Sci Total Environ. Vol.23,  No.271(1-3), pp.1-9.
  24. Hynes, H.B.N. (1970). The ecology of running waters, Liverpool University Press
  25. Idodo-Umeh, G. (2000) Freshwater fishes of Nigeria (Taxonomy, Ecological Notes, Diet and Utilization). Idodo-Umeh Publishers, Benin City, Nigeria.
  26. Ikem A, Egiebor NO, Nyavor K (2003) Trace elements in water, fish and sediment from Tuskegee Lake, South eastern U.S.A. Water, AirSoil Poll., Vol.149, pp.51-75.
  27. International Symposium on Restoration of Lakes and Wetlands: Proceedings of Lake 2000,
  28. Jennings G.D and Sneed R.E (1996). Nitrate in drinking water, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, Publication Number: AG pp. 473-474.
  29. Lee, H.S., Hwang, P.P. and Lin, H.C. (1996) Morphological changes of integumental chloride cells to ambient cadmium during the early development of the telecast, Oreochromis mossambicus. Environ. Boil. Of Fishes. Vol.45, pp.95-102.
  30. Luoma, S. N.; (1990). Processes affecting metal concentrations in estuarine and coastal marine sediments. Heavy metal in the marine Environment., CRC press., Boca Raton, FL, pp.51-66.
  31. Mayers, T. R.; Hendricks, J. D., (1984) Histopathology. In GM Rand, S.R. Petrocelli, Eds. Fundamental of aquatic
  32. Melancon, M.J. (1995) Bioindicators Used in Aquatic and Terrestrial Monitoring. In: Handbook of Ecotoxicology. (Eds. D.J. Hoffman, B.A. Rattner, G.A. BuKirkhan. M. B. 1983., Jr. and J. Cairns, Jr.), Lewis Publishers, London, pp. 220 – 240.
  33. Meybeck, M. (1996) River water quality: Global ranges, time and space variabilities, proposal for some redefinitions, Internationale Vereinigung fur theoretische und angewandte Limnologie, Vol.26, pp.81-96
  34. Mourad, F.A.  (1996)  M. Sc. thesis. National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF) Suez
  35. Nadia, B. E.; Badr Anwar, A.; El-Fiky Alaa R.; Mostafa, Bandr A.; Al-Mur., (2009) Metal pollution records in core sediments of some Red Sea coastal areas, Kingdom of SaudiArabia. Environ. Monit.Assess., Vol.155, No.1-4, pp.509-526 (18 pages).
  36. Nouri, J.; Karbassi, A. R.; Mirkia, S., (2008) Environmental management of coastal regions in the Caspian Sea. Int. J.Environ. Sci. Tech., Vol.5, No.1, pp.43-52
  37. Nouri, J.; Mahvi, A. H.; Babaei, A.; Ahmadpour, E., (2006) Regional pattern distribution of groundwater fluoride in the Shush aquifer of Khuzestan County IranFluoride. Fluoride., Vol.39, No.4, pp.321-325
  38. O.J. Aderinola, E.O. Clarke, O.M. Olarinmoye, V. Kusemiju and  M.A. Anatekhai, (2009) Heavy Metals in Surface Water, Sediments, Fish and Perwinklesof Lagos Lagoon. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., Vol.5, No.5, pp.609-617.
  39. Olaifa, F. G.; Olaifa, A. K.; Onwude, T. E., (2004) Lethal and sublethal effects of copper to the African Cat fish (Clarias gariepnus). Afr. J. Biomed. Res., Vol.7, pp.65-70.
  40. Pekey, H., (2006) Heavy metal pollution assessment in sediments of Izmit Bay, Turkey. Environ. Monitor. Assess.,Vol.123, No.1-3, pp.219-231
  41. Rehwoldt, R. and Karimian-Teherani, D. (1976) Uptake and effect of cadmium on zebrafish.Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology. Vol.15, No.4, pp.442-446.
  42. Samarghandi, M. R.; Nouri, J.; Mesdaghinia, A. R.; Mahvi, A.H.; Naseri, S.; Vaezi, F., (2007) Efficiency removal of phenol, lead and cadmium by means of UV/TiO2/H2O2processes. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., Vol.4, No.1, pp.10-25
  43. Sudhira H.S. and Kumar V.S. (2000) Monitoring of lake water quality in Mysore City. In:
  44. Tam, N. F. Y.; Wong, Y. S., (2000) Spatial variation of heavy metals in surface sediments of Hong Kong mangrove swamps.Environ.Pollut., Vol.110, No.2, pp.195-205
  45. Tort, L.; Torres, P., (1988) The effects of sub lethal concentration of cadmium on hematological parameters in the dog fish, Scyliorhinus Caniccula. J. Fish. Biol., Vol.32, No.2, pp.277-282.
  46. TYLER G (1972) Heavy metals pollute nature, may reduce productivity. Ambio Vol.1, No.2, pp.52-59.
  47. Vinodhini, R.; Narayanan, M., (2008) Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organs of fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio (Common carp). Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., Vol.5, No.2, pp.179-182
  48. Walker, D.J.; Hurl, S. (2008) The reduction of heavy metals in a storm water wetland.Ecological Engineering, v. 18, p. 407-414, 2002.Adefemi S O, Asaolu S S and Olaofe O, Res J Environ Sci., Vol.2, No.2, pp.151-155.
  49. Waqar, A., (2006) Levels of selected heavy metals in Tuna fish.Arab. J. Sci. Eng., Vol.31, No.1A, pp.89–92.
  50. WHO (World Health Organization) (1985) Guidelines for drinking water quality.Vol. 1. Recommendations, W.H.O. Geneva. 130pp.
  51. Yong, R.N.; Mohamed, A.M.O. and Warkentin, B.P. (1992) Principles of contaminant transport in soils. Developments in Geotechnical Engineering, 73.Elservier Science Publishers B.V Amsterdam.The Netherlands 327pp.
  52. Yousuf, M. H. A.; El-Shahawi., (1999) Trace metals in Lethrinuslentjan fish from Arabian Gulf: Metal accumulation in Kidney and Heart Tissues. Bull. Environ. Contam.Toxicol., Vol.62, No.3, pp.293-300.
  53. Yusuf KA, Osibanjo O (2006) Trace metals in water and sediments from Ologe lagoon, southwestern Nigeria. Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res., Vol.49, pp.88-89.
  54. Zvinowanda, C. M.; Okonkwo, J. O.; Shabalala, P. N.; Agyei, N.M., (2009) A novel adsorbent for heavy metal remediation in aqueous environments. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech. Vol.6, No.3, pp.425-434
No any video found for this article.
Aderinola, O.J , Kusemiju, V , Clarke, E. O (2012). Trace Metal Distribution in Surface Water, Sediment, and Tissues of Freshwater Catfish (Clarias. Gariepinus), From Oke- Afa Canal, Lagos Nigeria. International Journal of Geography and Geology, 1(1): 10-22. DOI:
This paper discusses concentrations of 7 essential trace metals (chromium,cadmium, copper, lead,nickel, manganese and zinc) in water, sediment and freshwater fish (Clarias. gariepinus) tissues from Oke-Afa Canal, Lagos Nigeria The sampling and analysis of the samples from Oke Afa canal were carried out between the month of June-October, 2011 and experimental procedures used followed the description of American Public Health Association (APHA) The results showed that Liver concentrated highest level of zinc, copper and lead (6.851±0.005 mg/Kg, 1.876±0.001mg/Kg and 0.143±0.001mg/Kg respectively). This was followed by sediments with mean values of (nickel = 0.400±0.001mg/Kg, chromium-=0.127±0.003mg/Kg, mn =0.092±0.001mg/Kg and cadmium= 0.076±0.003mg/Kg). Surface water equally concentrated some metals such as Manganese, cadmium and lead with mean values of 0.069±0.101Mg/L, 0.043±0.011Mg/L, 0.039±0.016Mg/L respectively.
The order of bioaccumulation in sediment are Zn >Cu>Ni>Cr>Pb>Mn>Cd while the order of bioaccumulation in liver was Zn>Cu>Ni>Pb>Cd>Mn>Cr Also the order of concentration in surface water was Mn>Zn>Cd>Pb>Ni>Cu>Cr
Metal concentration in the fish tissues (flesh, bones gills and guts) was low in concentration, but the values were still significant at 95 percent confidence limit (P< 0.05) with the exception of Manganese. This suggest that the water quality of Oke Afa canal system is adversely affected and impaired by the discharge of domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes.
Comparison of these values with FAO/WHO limits in fish tissue showed that it is safe to consume the fish species from Oke -Afa canal for now but may be unsafe due to possible bioaccumulation of the metals in the organs of man since humans are at the top of food chain.

Contribution/ Originality

Emergence And Returning Activity In The Indian Flying Fox, Pteropus Giganteus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae)

Pages: 1-9
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Emergence And Returning Activity In The Indian Flying Fox, Pteropus Giganteus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae)

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Cite

M. R. Sudhakaran , D. P. Swamidoss , P. Parvathiraj

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M. R. Sudhakaran , D. P. Swamidoss , P. Parvathiraj (2012). Emergence And Returning Activity In The Indian Flying Fox, Pteropus Giganteus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae). International Journal of Geography and Geology, 1(1): 1-9. DOI:
Approach: After a diurnal resting in the roost, bats adapts some behavioural pattern to get themselves active towards foraging there by involving in various activities. Their activity pattern differs from time to time depending on the change in climatic factors. But the behavioural activities they involved varies from time to time. Observation was done on the emergence and returning gate i. e the emergence or returning of first to last bat, pre emergence behaviour and post return behaviour, and influence of moonlight on foraging activity.

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