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The goal of producing concrete that provides long term durability with regard to properties such as strength and reduced susceptibility to alkali-silica reactions has led to the development of several high performance materials. In this research work, the effect of cellulose industrial residue in concrete matrix was investigated. A mix proportion of 1:1:6:3.2 with water-cement ratio of 0.47 were used. The percentage replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with cellulose industrial residue (CIR) is 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Concrete cubes of 150mm x 150mm x 150mm of OPC/CIR were cast and cured at 3,7,28,60 and 90 days respectively. At the end of each hydration period, the three concrete cubes for each hydration period were crushed and their average compressive strength recorded. A total of ninety (90) concrete cubes was cast. The result of the compressive strength test for 5-40% replacement of cement with cellulose industrial residue ranges from 13.02-32.81 N/mm2 as against 25.60-42.08 for the controi test. Similarly, the setting time of 5-40% replacement of cement with CIR ranges from 61-118mins for the initial setting time and 620-836mins for the final setting time as against 52mins and 950mins for the initial and final setting time respectively for the control test (0% replacement). The result of the slump test for 5-40% replacement of cement with CIR ranges from 12-53mm as against 6mm for the control test. The major aim of this research work is to determine the effect of cellulose industrial residue when used at a certain replacement level of cement in concrete matrix. Contribution/ Originality
The material (Cellulose industrial residue) can be used as a pozzolan in concrete production. This research work is original and have not been carried out anywhere.
The design of the multi-component distillation column for processing of Bonny light crude is presented using advanced process simulation software (Aspen Hysys). The steady state design models were developed from Mesh equations and were used to obtain the design parameters based on the principle of conservation of mass and energy. The design parameters were column diameter, column cross sectional area, height of the column, downcomer area, hole area, weir length, wet area and tray spacing. The equations developed are capable of predicting compositions, partial pressures and temperature of the components of interest from the mixtures of crude oil. The accuracy of the design parameters were ascertained by comparing predicted results with literature data of a distillation unit. The simulation of the design models were performed using Aspen Hysys to obtain optimum values of the most significant variables/parameters (column diameters 1.558m, column height 17.048m, cross section area 1.907m2, downcomer area 0.229m2, tray spacing 0.5m, weir length 1.200m, hole area 0.191m2 and wet area 1.678m2). The result obtained from the steady state simulation shows that the feed flow rate, temperature and pressure influence the efficiency of the distillation column. Contribution/ Originality
A model to predict the behavior of an adiabatic tubular fixed-bed reactor for the production of dimethyl ether using alumina catalyst was developed. The steady state model incorporates the reaction rate kinetic expression obtained from literature into the model equations. The models were integrated numerically using Fourth-order Runge-Kutta method incorporated into a computer simulator (MATLAB 7.7 code). Model predictions are compared with data obtained from the literature under the same operating conditions and a good agreement is obtained with a variation ranging from 0.5% to 2.7%. The simulation results show that the production of dimethyl ether is greatly affected by parameters such as temperature, and feed flow rate with optimum yield of DME at a catalyst bed height of 2-4m at a temperature of 557 to 570K. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by developing model equations that is used in predicting/simulation of functional parameters for optimum yield of DME. Unlike other works which assume isothermal condition, this study assumes an adiabatic condition and could be adopted for simulation of industrial DME plant.
Processing of fruits through radiation, involves exposure to short wave energy to achieve a specific purpose viz. reduced the weight loss and extended the ripening. An experiment was carried out to study the effect of irradiation and storage conditions in Alphonso mango on physiological weight loss and ripening. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized block design withfactorial concept with three repetitions. There were sixteen treatment combinations of irradiation dose (I1 -0.00, I2 -0.20, I3 -0.40 and I4 -0.60 kGy) and storage temperature (S1-Ambient, S2-90C, S3-120C and S4-CA storage (120C, O2 2%, CO2 3%). The fruits were exposed to gamma radiation for different doses from the source of 60Co at Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The data indicated that the fruits irradiated with 0.40 kGy gamma rays (I3) recorded significantly minimum per cent reduction in PLW and extended the ripening. Same pattern noted when fruits kept at 90C storage temperature. In combined effect of 0.40 kGy gamma rays irradiation and 90C storage temperature (I3S2) also recorded maximum reduction in the PLW and ripening per cent throughout the storage period. Contribution/ Originality
In this study we attempted to analyze and estimate the effect of ergonomics on sustainable urban development as a case study done in Guilan province of Iran. This is a survey study and participants were 80 experts of the city in environment field selected randomly using Krejcie& Morgan table. Data were analyzed in SPSS software using statistical tests. According to the results, “using appropriate colours in designing” and “human welfare” had the highest and lowest association with sustainable urban development in this province, respectively. Overall, we concluded that ergonomics or Human factor had significant effect on sustainable urban development and infrastructures. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the management of municipal solid waste in Algeria, moreover, it discussed the useful methods used in developed countries in order to consider those methods as useful experiences that can be used in Algeria.
The place of gravity stations is normally irregularly distributed. Although an ideal arrangement should be locally homogeneous, it is impossible in most cases, due to the availability issues. The surface areas due to more geological benefits and easier availability are more densely sampled which inevitably affects the measurement of the regular network as the interpolation error due to irregular distribution. The gravimetric data are usually presented by the color contour maps and it is required to be interpolated as a regular network. The combined distribution of the gravity stations are used in theoretical studies. It was found that there is an interval of the values for the random distribution of the data which has 2 fractal dimension dependent on Euclidean geometry for the spatial distribution of the data. And a new Bouguer was found using the grid and using anomaly fractal analysis in Esfarayen area gained, based on which a closer analysis of the explored area was conducted. The important anomaly in the region was recreated. Using the related fractal analysis reduces the number of data mined points. Contribution/ Originality
This study investigated the influence of laboratory method on students’ mathematical creativity in junior secondary schools in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State. The study was guided by three research questions and three hypotheses. The Pretest- Postest non-randomise control group design was adopted for the study. A sample of 122 students from two intact classes selected randomly was used for the study. The instruments for data collection were the Mathematics Creativity Test (MCT) and Students Attitude towards Mathematics Questionnaire (SAMQ). The data collected were analysed using mean and standard deviation, and the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The result indicated that Laboratory method of teaching significantly enhance students’ creativity in mathematics. The method equally enhanced mathematical creativity of both male and female students. Students’ attitude towards mathematics also influenced mathematical creativity significantly. Among others, it was recommended that mathematics teachers should explore the use of laboratory method in teaching various concepts in Junior Secondary School level. Contribution/ Originality
The study aims at recognizing the problems which gifted students at King Abdullah II Schools for Distinction (KASD) face. The study sample, 240 male and female students, is randomly selected out of the gifted students with a percentage of 50 % of the study society. A forty item questionnaire is prepared to achieve the study objectives. It is distributed into three fields: Problems related to school, to family, and to students. Study results show that problems which KASD students face are rated medium. Problems related to school come first, second those related to students, and finally those related to family. Statistical significant differences are found in the means of study subjects responses according to the gender variable at the two fields of family and school for the males. However, no significant differences are found in the means of the subjects responses according to the school stage variable (basic and secondary). Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature a research conducted about gifted students through three different perspectives; school, family, and students. It uses an estimation methodology provided by the gifted students themselves, their school and their families. The researchers talked to the students before constructing the questionnaire. It also originates new formula in giftedness and distinction. It is among few studies which have investigated gifted students necessary needs and problems. The study contributes the logical mono differential analysis on the study fields and the total instrument. Its primary contribution is finding that the problems gifted students face, are almost the same. Finally, it documents for distinction and gifted students' problems in Jordan and the Arab World.
The aim of this study is focused on the design of ethanol reforming catalyst to produce hydrogen at low-temperature with high ethanol conversion (XEtOH), hydrogen yield (YH2) and low CO distribution. A highly dispersed PtRu/CeO2 catalyst is prepared by impregnation method. Catalytic performance and products distribution toward ethanol reforming reactions is evaluated in a fixed bed reactor. Three processes of ethanol reforming are performed: steam reforming of ethanol (SRE), partial oxidation of ethanol (POE) and oxidative steam reforming of ethanol (OSRE). The results show that the SRE reaction requires high temperature (T > 500 C) to achieve complete ethanol conversion, however, low temperature for both POE and OSRE (T < 300 C) reactions. Analytical results indicate the optimized molar ratios of O2/EtOH and H2O/EtOH are 0.44 and 4.9, respectively. Under this condition, the OSRE reaction over PtRu/CeO2 catalyst is completely converted around 340 C to get 2.3% CO and 4.1 mol H2/mol EtOH. Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that a highly active catalyst, PtRu/CeO2, used in the reforming of ethanol is designed and evaluates for POE, SRE and OSRE reactions.
Thermochemical decomposition of Ondo tar-sand was carried out at a temperature of between 190–250°C in a constructed metal retort, and a yield of 66.66 % bitumen was obtained. Some important parameters of coal for blend simulation, such as the rheological and agglomerating properties of coal samples from – Garin Maiganga (GMG), Chikila (CHK), Lamza (LMZ), Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ), Afuzie (AFZ) were determined by Gray-King assay test to assess their suitability for blending in coke making. The results showed that all the coals had poor thermoplastic properties that cannot agglomerate on heating because of their low level of fluidity, even though SKJ had an appreciable coke yield of 82.60 % with coke type C indicating that it was weakly coking. Thereafter, formulation of binary blend of coal-bitumen by weight (10 % bitumen and 90 % pre-heated coal samples at about 150 oC) was carried out. And the feasibility of the blend for industrial coke production was investigated by physico-chemical analysis, which revealed that the coking properties of the blend had been improved: Gieseler fluidity/plastic property in dial division per minute (DDPM) for LMZ = 76; CHK = 15; AFZ = 37; GMG = 18 and SKJ = 390, which might produce metallurgical coke with good chemical and mechanical properties. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the feasibility coal-bitumen blend for production metallurgical coke. It was found that: pyrolysis is a vital tool in processing of tar sand into bitumen; and the bitumen improved the thermo-plastic properties of coal to cokeable level.
The Community based Sample Survey aimed at assessing the Prevalence of Stress experienced by the 1050 women of reproductive age(18-45) years. This study was conducted over a period of two years as Cross-Sectional in Sub-Urban South Chennai. The variables on demography and Stress were collected by Personal Interview method in a pre-structured standardized questionnaire after a pilot study. The main findings showed 856 (81.5%) women had experienced Stress, where 54 (5.1%) had Severe Stress. Women with Abdominal Obesity ≥0.85 [χ2= 11.9(P=0.001)] and from the Nuclear family [χ2= 16.9(P=0.000)] had a significant association with the Stress Outcome. There existed an insignificant difference in the mean Stress scores between the women age less than or above 30 years. The homemakers were equally experiencing stress with their counterpart women who were bound to work outside home. Family History of Couple misunderstanding, Ill Health of family member and Major Mortgage also showed significant difference in their mean stress levels by Student-t-test. The maximum mean difference in stress scores was identified by multiple comparison Post-Hoc Pairwise LSD test between the women who completed 10 and 15years of education (P=0.000). We conclude that the ‘Women with Stress and at Risk of developing further Illness’ should be identified at the earlier age for health assistance for a better life. Contribution/ Originality
Aim: Evaluation of patient satisfaction is accepted as a valuable addition to other types of outcome measures (such as health status, quality of life or costs) in measuring the quality of general practice care. The aim of this study is to assess the patient satisfaction for primary care before and after the transition of health care system in Turkey. Methods: The study included a sample of 588 patients from three public family health centers (FHCs) in Adana. The study was conducted between March and April 2008 and May and June 2009. The patients were asked to assess their family physician based on their contact experience before and after the health care system transition in Turkey. Results: Overall satisfaction was %74.6 before and %93.5 after the transition (p=0.0001). The “Organization of care” was evaluated as the most improving dimension. However, the “Medical care” change was the worst rated. “Providing quick services for emergency health problems”, “Knowing what s/he had done or told you during contacts” “Preparing you for what to expect from specialist or hospital care”, “Being able to speak to the general practitioner on the telephone”, “Getting through to the practice on telephone” and “Helping you deal with emotional problems related with your health status” were evaluated as improving items (p=0.0001). Conclusion: Patient evaluation of care can contribute to make practices and their teams more responsive to patient’s needs. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the patient satisfaction for primary care before and after the transition of health care system in Turkey.
The focus of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium alginate coating loaded with ascorbic acid on shelf life of raw pork meat slices, used to prepare skewers. To the aim, the meat samples were first dipped in the sodium lactate solution (40% w/w) and then divided into 3 treatment groups: (i) control samples (dipped meat), (ii) coated meat, (iii) coated meat containing ascorbic acid (i.e. 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm). All samples were packaged under modified atmosphere packaging (50%O2/30%CO2/20%N2) and stored at 4±2°C. The samples were analysed for sensory and microbiological characteristics. The combination of dipping, active coating and MAP improved the sensory quality of packaged skewers. In contrast active coating does not considerable effect in slowing down the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Sample coated with 1500 ppm ascorbic acid displayed the longest shelf life, equal to 8.9 days, which was about 60% longer than the control. Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that edible active coatings can improve the meat quality by retarding sensorial and microbiological deterioration and functioning as carriers of active compounds. The results suggest that combined the dipping and the active coating with modified atmosphere packaging the freshness of meat is comparatively prolonged.
This study analysed the interconnectedness between economic growth and imports in the short and long run in Zimbabwe from 1975 to 2013. The Zimbabwean economy generally experienced positively associated trend between Gross Domestic Product and imports over the years. For precise and effective policy formulation, it is therefore necessary to understand the nexus between the two mentioned macroeconomic variables. Based on the results of the Johansen causality method, there is a short run unidirectional link between Gross Domestic Product and imports, running from imports to Gross Domestic Product. In the long run no evidence exists for the connection between the two variables according to the Johansen co-integration tests. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on the relationship between imports and economic growth. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the causal relationship between imports and economic growth in Zimbabwe over a period of 38 years.
The experiment was conducted in 2014 cropping seasons to study the effect of intra row spacing on yield and yield components of carrot. The crop was grown in July to October (105 days) with five treatments (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 cm) in randomized complete block design with three replications. Root length, leaf fresh weight, root fresh weight, and root diameter weight were significantly different among treatments. The maximum root length (20.3 cm), root diameter (59.67 mm), root fresh weight (182. 33g plant-1) and fresh leave weight (129.67 g plant-1) were found in 15 cm spacing, whereas the highest total root yield per hectare was found in treatment 5 and 7.5cm; 55.15, and 54.75 ton, respectively. Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that to study the effect of intra row spacing on yield and yield components of carrot on field. Then develop a correct intra row spacing to address the issues for carrot growers in Western Shawa of Ethiopia. The input gathered at this study provided an important perspective on the carrot intra row spacing and techniques used on the field.
Novel N,N-di-oxalamide derivatives 1-6 were synthesized and characterized by the spectroscopic techniques. These derivatives showed good antibacterial activities against Gram-negative organism Escherichia coli and Gram-positive organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilus. However, compounds 3 and 4 showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative organism Escherichia coliand Gram-positive organism Staphylococcus aureus. In addition to that, we compared their antibacterial profiles with previously synthesized N,N-di-oxalamide derivatives 7-9. The new compounds showed superior antibacterial activities compared to moderate activities for 7-9. Contribution/ Originality
Currently the target market traditional snack food called “borondong”of Majalaya-Bandung only based on geographic region, with the target market in several areas around Bandung. This situation causes the product looks almost same or a generic product in the consumers perspective that have difficulties to position its brand excellence in consumer perceptions. On the other hand the customer profile of the target market is very diverse both in terms of demographics, lifestyle and behavior. Advantages that are not understood by the consumer will certainly have an impact on the marketing performance of traditional snack food businesses like “borondong” . The purpose of this study was to conduct re-profile consumer snacks food Borondong which is based on differences existing products, demographics and consumer behavior. Results of re-profile customer and the target markets which appropriate for each brand of products is the basis of brand positioning of each product. This research was conducted with descriptive method through surveys descriptive and data analysis using cluster analysis and corespondence analysis and product profile mapping techniques. The results of the research, cluster analysis to form six new segment of the consumer market Borondong, which is the cash cow, the next new hope, the good boy, poor segments, Nice Niche Market and challenging targets. Correspondence analysis resulted in correspondence between the brand with a new positioning attributes. Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s contribution is useful for brand communication strategy in the form of creating a brand for traditional snack food entrepreneurs that can improve sales performance of products and building a strong brand
Scedosporium infections have become one of the most common cause of deep mold infections. It has also become a potentially dangerous causative agent of local and invasive infections in immunocompromised and occasionally in immunocompetent patients. It exhibits intrinsic resistance to many antifungals making the treatment difficult, thereby increasing the mortality. We present a case of an immunocompetent patient who came with a swelling on the left upper eyelid with a discharging sinus. A diagnosis of frontal lobe abscess was made and the mucopurulent discharge from the sinus was sent to the microbiology laboratory to know the etiology. The KOH wet mount of this discharge showed the presence of septate hyphal elements and the fungal culture yielded the growth of Scedosporium prolificans.The patient was treated with intravenous voriconazole to which he showed a favourable response. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature with various clinical manifestations of Scedosporium like osteomyelitis, lung infection and infection in the transplant patients. This study is one of very few studies as scedosporium causing frontal lobe abscess…is rare. The paper's primary contribution is finding out the various causes of infections manifesting as a central venous system infection. This study documents that Scedosporium can enter the CNS through nasal septum and can be treated with voriconazole.
The conceptual framework of brand image for the tourism industry is a combination of antecedents and moderators that create differential effects on customer response to the tourism marketing of the brand. By constructing a conceptual framework of brand image for tourism industry will build a competitive advantage in the marketplace that will increase their overall image with long-term sustainability. Indeed, recent trends in modern tourism marketing have changed tremendously, and study of a conceptual framework of brand image for the tourism industry is increasingly becoming considerable to keep pace with this change. In this conceptual paper, we have summarized the literature on currently prevailing concepts and approaches on brand image for the tourism industry that will allow us to identify the conceptual framework of brand image, and therefore will facilitate the tourism industry to enhance their marketing efficiency and effectiveness. Contribution/ Originality
This paper’s contribution or originality is focusing the conceptual framework of brand image for the tourism industry. Indeed, the first time this paper highlights two moderating variables that imply tourism management and advertisement as moderators within the conceptual framework of brand image for the tourism industry.
This paper explored the main features of the legal regulations regarding the protection and use of groundwater in modern Kazakhstan. Other nations experience on these laws in light of negative anthropogenic influences will also be brought forth in the discussion of Kazakhstan’s water sources. These two topics along with related laws put forward by to improve subsoil, will be tied together to present a critical analysis of current water legislation within the Republic of Kazakhstan. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies, which have investigated the problem of legal regulation and protection of groundwater in the Republic of Kazakhstan and foreign countries. The paper contributes the first logical analysis. This paper discusses problems relating to groundwater protection regulation at both the national and international levels.