Journal of Sports Research

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2410-6534
Print ISSN: 2413-8436
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The Effect of Nasal Breathing Versus Oral and Oronasal Breathing During Exercise: A Review

Pages: 1-10
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The Effect of Nasal Breathing Versus Oral and Oronasal Breathing During Exercise: A Review

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.90.2020.71.1.10

George Dallam , Bethany Kies

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George Dallam , Bethany Kies (2020). The Effect of Nasal Breathing Versus Oral and Oronasal Breathing During Exercise: A Review. Journal of Sports Research, 7(1): 1-10. DOI: 10.18488/journal.90.2020.71.1.10
Historically, exercise physiologists believed that humans produce the greatest physical work by breathing orally. Recently, however, authors from the fields of medicine, health and exercise have described the potential benefits of limiting breathing to the nasal airway during exercise, but actual effects have been infrequently examined in the literature. The purpose of this review was to examine the effects of nasal breathing as compared to oral and oronasal breathing during exercise from the available peer reviewed literature. Studies were identified using six search terms in Google Scholar. All related descriptive studies were included as were experimental studies with the following three criteria: a repeated measures design, randomization of condition order, and valid measurement techniques. The search results yielded a total of 30 published articles as of August, 2019, and both descriptive (n=7) and experimental studies (n=23) were reviewed for the effects of nasal breathing on exercise. The evidence suggests that exclusively nasal breathing is feasible for most people at moderate levels of aerobic exercise without specific adaptation, and that this breathing approach may also be achieved during heavy and maximal levels of aerobic exercise following a sustained period of use. Benefits of nasal breathing include a reduction in exercise induced bronchoconstriction, improved ventilatory efficiency, and lower physiological economy for a given level or work. The use of nasal dilation devices can increase the work intensity achieved during exercise while breathing nasally. Further research on the effects of nasal breathing during exercise is needed.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical analysis of the scientific literature addressing the use of nasal versus oral or oronasal breathing during exercise.

Effect of Factors of Body Composition, Body Stature and Distribution of Lifters in the Weight Categories

Pages: 11-21
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Effect of Factors of Body Composition, Body Stature and Distribution of Lifters in the Weight Categories

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.90.2020.71.11.21

Attila Adamfi , Andras S. Szabo

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Attila Adamfi , Andras S. Szabo (2020). Effect of Factors of Body Composition, Body Stature and Distribution of Lifters in the Weight Categories. Journal of Sports Research, 7(1): 11-21. DOI: 10.18488/journal.90.2020.71.11.21
It was demonstrated that for the biomechanical evaluation of the relative performance the complex system (body + barbell) should be taken into account. Another factor is the body-composition (muscle-, fat- and bone ratios) of the lifters. The most dominant is the muscle-ratio, which is significantly less in the super-heavyweight category than in the others. Modification parameter is the physique of the athlete (dominantly the body height), because to reach higher level with the barbell during the pull it is necessary to have higher speed, so consequently the lifter has to perform higher acceleration and needs more strength to carry it out. The body height is important from point of view of energetics, as well – the physical work performed by a taller lifter is more – influencing also the regeneration time and the loadability, reducing the level of sport result. The physique and body composition has an impact also on the movement-structure and the technical skill (level) of attempts. In the super-heavyweight the technique is often far from the optimum, concerning the biomechanical requirements (e.g. the disturbing effect of the big belly). The last factor is the distribution of lifters in the different categories, surely if the number of lifters is not similar in the different categories, the expectable sport level can be also different.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses new estimation methodology for analysis of the relative performance of top weightlifters, taking into consideration also the body composition, body stature and distribution of lifters in the different weight categories.

Designing Weight Training Programs Based on Basic Principles

Pages: 22-31
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Designing Weight Training Programs Based on Basic Principles

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.90.2020.71.22.31

Barouch Giechaskiel

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Barouch Giechaskiel (2020). Designing Weight Training Programs Based on Basic Principles. Journal of Sports Research, 7(1): 22-31. DOI: 10.18488/journal.90.2020.71.22.31
A weight (resistance) training program includes training variables, such as exercises, sets, repetitions and training frequency. A training plan describes how the variables should be modified over time. In order to be effective, both training programs and plans should be based on some basic principles, applicable to all trainees. Based on the literature review, the most important and well supported is the principle of progressive overload, which states that the stimulus should be gradually increasing over time. The principle of specificity states that the training adaptations are specific to the stimulus applied, while the principle of variation (and periodization) states that the stimulus should change (within the specificity limits) to remain challenging. Although they are not necessary to increase performance, there is evidence supporting higher improvements. The principle of individuality states that the stimulus should be adjusted based on the individual’s needs. Even though overlooked, limited data indicate that it may be more important than specificity and variation. This paper discusses the basic principles, the criticism against them, and how they should be applied when designing resistance training programs.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the principles that a weight training plan should be based on some basic principles, applicable to all trainees. This study contributes in the existing literature by clarifying the confusion and misconceptions on the topic.