Yakubu Joy Asmau , Michael Samuel Agility , Abarshi Jemimah Amina (2019). Dutch Disease: Myth or Reality? An Analysis of the ARDL Model. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 6(3): 130-140. DOI: 10.18488/journal.62.2019.63.130.140
The theory of Dutch disease has existed in literatures since the 1960’s. The concept has developed and has been attributed to the increase in pernicious distributive struggle of resources and rent seeked by various equally powerful groups, which resulted in a decline in investment levels and growth rates. This concept is applicable to the Nigerian economy as Nigeria is a mono-product economy depending solely on crude oil. This paper differs from others as a different model (ARDL model) is used to analyze the extent of Dutch disease prevalent in Nigeria. The methodology can be applied irrespective of whether the time series is I(0), I(1) or frictionally integrated; the problem of endogeneity is avoided while the short run and long run parameters are estimated simultaneously. Data used spans the years 1980-2016, as it captures both long run and short run relationships effectively. The stationarity test depicts stationary at I(1) taking into consideration two lags. In addition, the long run and short run relationships were established through the bound test since the computed F statistic is higher than the upper boundary. Analysis suggests that the relationship between effects of oil production on the balance of payments and exchange rate in Nigeria extends to the long run. The results showed that for every unit change resulting from the balance of payment, oil price increased by 90% and for every unit change resulting from the exchange rate, oil price fell by 59%. This study supports the fact that the balance of payment and exchange rates are veritable ingredients to raise economic growth if maintained for the benefit of all. Therefore, the option of economic diversification should be seriously considered by the Nigerian government.
This study is to contribute by applying different model (ARDL model) in order to analyze the scope of Dutch disease in case of Nigeria.
Investigating the Impact of Business Alignment on Job Gratification in an Organization: The Case of a University in Egypt
Said Abdo , David Edgar (2019). Investigating the Impact of Business Alignment on Job Gratification in an Organization: The Case of a University in Egypt. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 6(3): 141-158. DOI: 10.18488/journal.62.2019.63.141.158
The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of business alignment and job gratifications of employees in a university, viewed as a corporate organization. This study examined if there was an empirically demonstrable connection between these two variables. This empirical research was conducted through a survey on a research sample of 200 employees of an Egyptian University. The results of this study found that there was no significant relationship between these two variables. However, it was found that employees’ job gratification can be sensitive to both positive and negative influences from certain business alignments and job gratification factors. The study concluded that there was relatively little impact of business alignment on job gratification while employee performance has only a very small impact on mediating relationship between business alignment and job gratification. Nevertheless, it is concluded that, in the university context, management should address, promote and monitor corporate intrapreneurship in the organization, eventually creating an organization with employees who are satisfied in their jobs. Managements in such organizations should therefore align themselves towards the promotion of corporate intrapreneurship activities by being receptive to, and by encouraging and rewarding innovative suggestions from employees.
As research on the effect of business alignment on job gratification in organizations is scant, and theoretical and practical contributions have not produced a clear answer to the real nature and effect of the influence of business alignment and job gratification on employee performance, this research attempts to provide an additional contribution to knowledge by testing the relationship between business alignment and job gratification in a particular context: the university viewed as a corporate institution.
An Empirical Evaluation of Cashless Systems Implementation in Ghana
Richard Apau , Ernest Obeng , Akonnor Nana Darko (2019). An Empirical Evaluation of Cashless Systems Implementation in Ghana. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 6(3): 159-173. DOI: 10.18488/journal.62.2019.63.159.173
This study aims to evaluate cashless systems as a means of payment and receipt in Ghana. Specifically, the study sought to identify the modes of cashless systems in use and evaluate the level of implementation. A quantitative approach was adopted and primary data was gathered from 345 respondents knowledgeable in cashless systems using a structured questionnaire. Secondary data on cashless systems transactions between 2013 and 2017 were obtained from the Bank of Ghana. Data were analysed quantitatively using SPSS and presented using tables and charts. The findings reveal that the value of transactions made through cashless systems is on the rise. The use of cheques continues to be the dominant system in place at the end of 2017. The study found that mobile money services are penetrating the market at a pace faster than all other cashless payment and receipt modes. Internet banking is another emerging area that is also fast gaining ground. Debit/credit cards, E-zwich and Electronic funds transfers are not fully used in day to day transactions. Point of Sale terminals are rarely available at local shops to promote the use of cards in making purchases. The study found convenience, time savings and security from physical attacks to be the key benefits of cashless systems. Low literacy serves as major challenge to cashless system implementation. Based on these findings, it is recommended that local shops and supermarkets be assisted to adopt cashless receipt systems. The ease of finding shops that accept e-payments for items will reduce the desire in carrying cash for transactions.
This study is one of few studies that have assessed the effectiveness of cashless system implementation in Ghana. The study adopted a mix of research approaches and strategies aimed at exploring the level of implementation, benefits, drivers and challenges of cashless systems as a means of transaction.
The Transitional Relationship between Economic Growth and Exchange Rate in Ghana: An Empirical Approach
Ignatius Abasimi , Xuan Li , Seidu Mohammed (2019). The Transitional Relationship between Economic Growth and Exchange Rate in Ghana: An Empirical Approach. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 6(3): 174-185. DOI: 10.18488/journal.62.2019.63.174.185
The motivation behind this study was to investigate empirically the transitional relationship between economic growth and the exchange rate in Ghana, viz, to what extent and magnitude does the exchange rate affect economic growth? The variables incorporated in the study were interest rate, inflation and direct foreign investment. The statistical results using the Phillips-Perron (PP) test of stationary disclosed that the variables were integrated in order of I(1) and I(0). Johnson cointegration (maximum eigenvalues) established the existence of at least two cointegration vectors and long-run relationships between the variables in the model. The output from the long and short-run estimates revealed the exchange rate to have a robust significant relationship with economic growth. It was recommended that government should embark on rigorous domestic economic transformation (monetary policies, infrastructure repositioning, adequate security etc.) as well as external export promotions to strengthen the economic fundamentals so as to attract foreign investment into the economy. It was also recommended that the Bank of Ghana should pay particular attention to inflation and interest rate volatilities to ensure and embed consumer and producer confidence.
This study contributes in the existing literature by illuminating the dynamism and robustness of exchange rate volatilities, and their interlinking causality with economic growth in Ghana. The study employed a new estimation methodology to establish both short and long-run connections between these economic fundamentals and internal economic development.