Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

Eutrophication State Monitoring for Unhealthy Aquatic Ecosystem via Free-Floating Macrophytes Pattern and Behavioral

Rashidi Othman


Qurratu Aini Mat Ali


Wan Naimatul Asiah Wan Muhamad


Maheran Yaman


Zainul Mukrim Baharuddin

Rashidi Othman 1 Qurratu Aini Mat Ali 1 Wan Naimatul Asiah Wan Muhamad 1 Maheran Yaman 1 Zainul Mukrim Baharuddin 1 

  1. International Institute for Halal Research and Training (INHART), Herbarium Unit, Department of Landscape Architecture, Kulliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1


 Nutrient enrichment or eutrophication is a process of increasing plant nutrients in water bodies, frequently due to run-off from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life. Eutrophication process is assisted by internal and external sources of nutrients such as nitrogen fixation and phosphate. In freshwater ecosystem, anthropogenic source of nutrients such as detergents, fertilizers and organic debris are among the sources of excess nutrients for nitrogen and phosphorus. It also has been proved to be a major factor which contributes to eutrophication and consequent algal blooms, spreading of certain aquatic macrophytes, depletion of oxygen and loss of key species leading to degradation of many freshwater ecosystems. This study aimed to discover the abilities of free-floating aquatic macrophyte species as an phytoindicator for eutrophication either at contamination or pollution level in polluted aquatic ecosystem to support their upcoming development and prospective through landscape ecology approach. The effects of nutrients (ammonium, phosphate, nitrate and nitrite), the free-floating aquatic macrophytes and locations have been studied on eutrophication in aquatic freshwater ecosystem. All species ( Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Neptunia oleracea, Spirodella polyrhiza, Salviniamolesta and Pistia stratiotes) were detected with high level of phosphate at level III at all localities (Pahang, Selangor and Kelantan). Ammonium concentration was varied from class I to class III. In conclusion, changing in E.crassipes, L.minorand S.polyrhiza pattern and behavioral are proven to be the best phytoindicator for eutrophication state monitoring.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that free-floating aquatic macrophyte species have capability to be introduced in landscape ecology as potential phytoindicator for eutrophication and as green approach to monitor unhealthy aquatic ecosystem such as nutrients excess and eutrophication which is cost effective and environmental friendly.



  1. Al-Shami, S.A., C.S. Md Rawi, A.H. Ahmad and S.A. Mohd Nor, 2010. Distribution of chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) in polluted rivers of the Juru river basin, Penang, Malaysia. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 22(11): 1718–1727.
  2. Cornwell, D.A., J. Zoltek, C.D. Patrinely, T.S. Furman and J.I. Kim, 1977. Nutrient removal by water hyacinth. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed, 70: 57-65.
  3. Galloway, J.N. and E.B. Cowling, 2002. Reactive nitrogen and the world: Two hundred years of change. Ambio, 31: 64 – 71.
  4. Hunsaker, C.T. and D.E. Carpenter, 1990. Ecological indicators for the environmental monitoring and assessment program. Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory, EPA, 600: 3-90.
  5. Ma, J., Z. Ding, G. Wei, H. Zhao and T. Huang, 2009. Sources of water pollution and evolution of water quality in the wuwei basin of Shiyang river, Northwest China. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(2): 1168–1177.
  6. Milan, B., P. Slobodanka, S. Živko and K. Borivoj, 2006. Macrophytes as phytoindicators and potential phytoremediators in aquatic ecosystems. In th International Conference: International Austrian Committee Danube Research, Vienna.
  7. MohdLatiff, N.H., 2014. Study on landscape ecology of fern species as potential ecological indicator for urban environment. International Islamic University Press.
  8. MohdLatiff, N.H., R.I. Shaharuddin, W.N.A. Wan Muhamad and R. Othman, 2012. Study on aquatic plant species (Salvinianatans, Neptuniaoleracea and Hydrillaverticillata) as phytoindicator for nutrient excess. Presented at 1st International Conference on Innovation and Technology for Sustainable Built Environment 2012 (ICITSBE 2012), 16-17 April 2012, Perak, Malaysia.
  9. Mony, C., T.J. Koschnick, W.T. Haller and S. Muller, 2007. Competition between two invasive hydrocharitaceae (Hydrillaverticillata) (L.f.) (Royle) and Egeria densa (Planch)) as influence by sediment fertility and season. Aquat. Bot, 86: 236-242.
  10. NAHRIM, 2005. A desktop study on the status of lake eutrophication in Malaysia. Final Report, August 2005.
  11. Shaharuddin, R.I., N.H. Mohd Latiff, W.N.A. Wan Muhamad and R. Othman, 2012. The use of macrophytes as indicators of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems. Presented at 1st International Conference on Innovation and Technology for Sustainable Built Environment 2012 (ICITSBE 2012), 16-17 April 2012, Perak, Malaysia.
  12. Shaw, G.R., D.P. Moore and C. Garnett, 2003. Eutrophication and algal blooms. Environmental and Ecological Chemistry, 2: 1-21.
  13. Sima, C.H., M.K. Yusoff, B. Shutesb, S.C. Hoc and M. Mansor, 2008. Nutrient removal in a pilot and full scale constructed wetland, Putrajaya city, Malaysia. Journal of Environmental Management, 88(2): 307–317.
  14. Wan Muhamad, W.N.A. and R. Othman, 2012. Phytotechnology: Floaters aquatic plant species as potential phytoindicator for eutrophication in unhealthy aquatic ecosystem.
  15. Wolverton, B.C. and R.C. Mc Donald, 1975. Water hyacinths for upgrading sewage lagoons to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards, part 1, NASATM-X7279, national space tech. Lab, national aeronautics and space admin, Bay St. Louis, Miss.
  16. Zati, S. and S. Zakaria, 2008. Lakes and reservoir in Malaysia: Management and research challenges. Presented at The 12th World Lake Conference, 28th October-2nd November 2007, Jaipur, India.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article

( 1 ) Eutrophication State Monitoring for Unhealthy Aquatic Ecosystem via Free-Floating Macrophytes Pattern and Behavioral
( 2 ) Aquatic Plants as Ecological Indicator for Urban Lakes Eutrophication Status and Indices
( 3 ) Flood Hazard Assessment and Decisions Support Using Geographic Information System: A Case Study of Uyo Capital City, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
( 4 ) Environmental and Health Impact of Solid Mineral Exploration and Exploitation in South-Northern Nigeria: A Case Study of Igarra in Edo State
( 5 ) Carbon Sequestration Potential of Kpashimi Forest Reserve, Niger State, Nigeria
( 7 ) The Roles of Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) On the Practices of Soil and Water Conservation in the Case of Sekela District, Amhara State, Ethiopia
( 8 ) Analysis of Farmers’ Vulnerability, Perception and Adaptation to Climate Change in Kwara State, Nigeria
( 9 ) Assessment of Physico-Chemical Quality of Water in Aliero Dam (Kebbi State, Nigeria)
( 10 ) Forest as a Redeemer: Experiences Drawn from Selected Rural Ejagham Communities in Etung Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria
( 11 ) Investigation of the Effect of Weather Conditions on Solar Energy in Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
( 12 ) Challenges of Enforcement of Forestry Legislation in Taraba State, Nigeria
( 13 ) Urban Sprawl Analysis in Jalingo Metropolis, Taraba State Nigeria
( 14 ) Assessment of Environmental Effect of Abandoned Uranium Mine Site in Mika Village of Taraba State Nigeria
( 15 ) Promoting Climate Change Adaptation Measures for Improving Productivity among Smallholder Farmers in Taraba State, Nigeria
( 16 ) The Influence of Climate Variability on Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands, Yobe State, Nigeria
( 17 ) Spatial Appraisal of Problems and Prospects of Fertilizer Use for Agriculture on the Environment in Mbieri, Mbaitoli Local Government Area, Imo State Nigeria
( 18 ) Determinants of Farmers’ Engagement in Off-Farm (Non-Farm Activities) as Copping Strategies to Climate Change: The Case of Merti, Arsi Zone, Oromiya Regional State, Ethiopia
( 19 ) The Impact of Human Activities on the Ndivana Forest Reserves, Kwaya Kusar Local Government Area, Borno State, Nigeria
( 20 ) Determination of Refractivity Gradient and Modified Refractivity Gradient for Cross River State
( 21 ) Impact of the Optimal Tilt Angle on the Solar Photovoltaic Array Size and Cost for a 100 kWh Solar Power System in Imo State
( 22 ) The Use of Indigenous Methods in Seasonal Climate Prediction and Adaptation among Farmers in Atisbo Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 23 ) Geographical Analysis of Household Waste Generation and Disposal in Taraba State, Northeast Nigeria
( 24 ) Assessment of Ground Water Abstraction in Kwadon, Yamaltu Deba Local Government Area, Gombe State
( 25 ) Rural Harvested Rainwater: Effect of Roof Types and its Design on Water Quality and Health: A Case for CBP Approach in Anambra State
( 26 ) Assessment of Landuse and Landcover Changes and its Implications to Flooding Along Omambala Flood Plain, Anambra State
( 28 ) Monitoring of surface soil quality parameters of the Sitalakshya River, Bangladesh
( 29 ) Monitoring of Surface Soil Quality Parameters of the Sitalakshya River, Bangladesh
( 30 ) The Remote Sensing Imagery, New Challenges for Geological and Mining Mapping in the West African Craton - The Example of Cote D’ivoire
( 31 ) A Study of Stream Sediments from Soltan Meydan Basaltic Formation Area, Northern Iran
( 32 ) Resolving Optimum Magnetic Signatures for Drill-Hole Targeting in Gold Exploration – A Case Study for Mbudzane in Gwanda, Zimbabwe
( 33 ) Energy Demand and Financial Sector Performance in Sub-Saharan African Region
( 34 ) Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for Achieving Desire BA in the Biotransformation of Benzaldehyde Using Free Cells of Saccharomyces Cerevisae and the Effect of Β-Cyclodextrin
( 35 ) Micro Biostratigraphy and Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Permian Dalan Formation (Zagros Basin, Southwest Iran)
( 37 ) Subsidies and the Demand for Petroleum Products in Nigeria
( 38 ) Inversion of Electrical Resistivity Data by VES Method for Water Exploring Case Study: South West of Iran
( 39 ) Geographic Information System (GIS) and Its Application in Urban Planning and Environment
( 40 ) Micro Level Geo-Resistivity Survey through V.E.S. Test for Groundwater Feasibility Study and Selection of Bore Well Sites in Pipili Block of Puri
( 41 ) Rayleigh Distribution-Based Model for Prediction of Wind Energy Potential of Cameroon
( 42 ) Thermodynamic Parameters for Solvation of Nano ZNO and Its Dopes In 50% DMSO - 50% DMF (V/V) Solutions at Different Temperatures
( 43 ) Energy Consumption and Thermal Comfort Analysis of Public Housing in Sao Paulo, Brazil
( 45 ) UPFC Integrated With Battery Energy Storage Systems for Stability Improvement
( 48 ) Well Log Sequence Stratigraphic and Palynological Analysis of Late Miocene to Pliocene Agbada Formation, Southwestern Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria
( 49 ) Effect of Active Mass in Electrode Disc on Performance of Li1.06ni0.313co0.313mn0.313o2cathode
( 50 ) Strategies for Tourism Development in National Parks with the Use of Swot Model (Case: Golestan National Park)
( 51 ) Laterite Sampling Preparation for Gold Exploration Survey at Western Burkina Faso, Northern Extension of the Lawra Belt
( 52 ) Phytoremediation Model System for Aquaculture Wastewater Using Glossostigma Elatinoides and Hemianthus Callitrichoides
( 53 ) Comparative Assessment of Co2 Emission Factors Estimated Using Stack Flue Gas Measurement Data for Two Types of Brick Kiln: A Case Study in Phu Tho Province, Vietnam
( 54 ) Expanded of Informal Jobs in Iranian Border Cities, Case: Zabol-Iran
( 55 ) Renewable Sources of Energy for Economic Development in Nigeria
( 56 ) Microbiostratigraphy and Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Permian Dalan Formation in Kuh-E-Surmeh (Zagros Basin, Southwest Iran)
( 57 ) Presentation of Empirical Equations for Estimating Internal Friction Angle of SP and SC Soils in Mashhad, Iran Using Standard Penetration and Direct Shear Tests and Comparison with Previous Equations
( 58 ) Governments Policy Reforms from 1970s Onward and It’s Implications on Land Use and Land Cover With the Help of GIS And RS Techniques In Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia
( 59 ) Characterization of Sedimentary Anzali Sand for Static and Seismic Studies Purposes
( 60 ) Chemical Composition and Facieses of Water from Vaskareh Village, Damavand: Implication for Industrial, Agricultural and Human Consumptions
( 61 ) Fuzzy Logic Based Energy Management System for Hybrid Electric Vehicle
( 62 ) Experimental Research Concerning the Energy Performance Determination of a New Type of Rotating Working Machine
( 63 ) Prioritization of Museums in Terms of Performance in Attracting Tourists (Case Study: Museum of North of Sistan and Baluchestan Province)
( 64 ) Reliability and Rationing Cost: Some Analytical Implications for a Power System
( 65 ) Runoff Prediction by Support Vector Machine for Chalous River Basin of Iran
( 67 ) Preliminary Study of Activated Carbon Filters for Pollutants Removal in Diesel Engines
( 68 ) Experimental Investigation of Dynamic Behavior of Shallow Foundation Resting on the Reinforced Sand with Embedded Pipes
( 69 ) Assessing the Catalytic Influence of Modern Information System and Socio-Economic Status on Communities’ Attitude and Awareness to Forest Resource Sustainability in Boki Local Government Area, Nigeria
( 70 ) Microbiostratigraphy, Microfacies and Depositional Environment of the Sarvak Formation in Bi Bi Hakimeh Oil Field (Well No. 29), Southwest Iran
( 71 ) Technogenic Transformations of Sea Coasts on the Example of the Baltic Sea
( 73 ) Zoning of Natural and Man-Made Disasters for Relief and Rescue Centers Site Selection Using the Model Logic (Case Study: Guilan Rural Area)
( 74 ) Microfacies and Morphotectonic of the Tirgan Formation in Ghorogh Syncline (North of Chenaran)
( 75 ) Experimental Study on Overtopping Performance of a Circular Ramp Wave Energy Converter
( 78 ) Using Rubber Aggregate Derived from Discarded Tires for Producing Cement Concrete towards Resource Recovery and Environmental Protection in Vietnam
( 79 ) Microbiostratigraphy and Sedimentary Environment of the Sarvak and Kazhdumi Formations in Bahregansar Oil Field
( 80 ) Reinforcing Kenya Power National Grid Using Statcom Devices
( 81 ) Analysis of the Factors Affecting Changes in Land Cover Patterns in Rural Districts in East of Guilan Province (Iran) for Foresight
( 83 ) Porous Carbon Materials for Clean and Sustainable Energy
( 84 ) Biostratigraphy and Paleoecology of Maastrichtian and Paleocene Sediments in the Northern Alborz, Iran, Using Foraminifera