Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

International Journal of Geography and Geology

April 2013, Volume 2, 4, pp 36-51

Hospital Site Selection Using a BDI Agent Model

Saeed Behzadi


Ali A. Alesheikh

Saeed Behzadi 1
Ali A. Alesheikh 2

  1. Geospatial Information System, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran 1

  2. Department of Geospatial Information System, K.N. Toosi University of Technology Tehran, Iran 2

Pages: 36-51

DOI: 10.18488/journal.10/2013.2.4/

Share :


This paper presents a newly developed Belief-Desire-Intention (BDI) Agent-based model for estimating suitable hospital sites. Our model makes use of existing geospatial functions and a novel BDI architecture of agent techniques. More specifically, the fundamental concepts of practical reasoning architecture such as belief, desire, intention, along with commitment, and interaction have been combined with analyses and applications of Geographical Information System (GIS). The proposed model can be customized for a wide range of decision making problems in GIS, one of which is site selection. In this model, minimal travel time, air pollution and land cost are considered as the goals of agents, and then the agents observe, and believe in the environment. The agent then determines the intention to implement on the environment for achieving their desires. The desires are generated from agents’ goals. The interactions among agents are considered as a part of process for achieving contemporarily goals. In this paper, the fundamental components of agent such as observation, belief, desire, intention, commitment, and interaction are introduced spatially, and a BDI-GIS model is defined based on these components. The Desktop GIAgent software, introduced in this paper, has the advantage of using agents for spatial analysis. The interface helps guiding decision makers through the sequential steps for site selection, namely; importing data, defining goals, determining actions and identifying the agent’s characteristics. For demonstrating the robustness of our new model, a case study was planned and executed in Tehran, Iran. The efficiency of the BDI-GIS model in the decision making process for selecting suitable hospital sites was also demonstrated based on the characteristics of the agents and the types of their interactions.

Contribution/ Originality


Geographical Information System (GIS), Agent, Belief, Desire, Intention, Interaction, Hospital Site Selection


  1. Adeli, Z. and A. Khorshiddoust, 2011. Application of geomorphology in urban planning: Case study in landfill site selection. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 19: 662-667.
  2. Barlaz, M.A., P. Ozge Kaplan, S. Ranji Ranjithan and R. Rynk, 2003. Evaluating environmental impacts of solid waste management alternatives. Biocycle, 44(10): 52-56.
  3. Bhushan, N. and K. Rai, 2004. Strategic decision making: Applying the analytic hierarchy process. Springer Verlag.
  4. Brabyn, L. and C. Skelly, 2002. Modeling population access to new zealand public hospitals. International Journal of Health Geographics, 1(1): 3.
  5. Cheng, S., C.W. Chan and G.H. Huang, 2002. Using multiple criteria decision analysis for supporting decisions of solid waste management. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 37(6): 975-990.
  6. Cho, Y., W.C. Lee, S. Hong, H.C. Kim and J.B. Kim, 2011. Gis-based suitable site selection using habitat suitability index for oyster farms in geoje-hansan bay, korea. Ocean & Coastal Management.
  7. Corresponding, O.M., 2005. A stochastic spatial decision support system based on promethee. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 19(1): 51-68.
  8. Dunin-Keplicz, B. and R. Verbrugge, 2010. Teamwork in multi-agent systems (a formal approach). Chichester: Wiley
  9. Goorah, S.S.D., M.L.I. Esmyot and R. Boojhawon, 2009. The health impact of nonhazardous solid waste disposal in a community: The case of the mare chicose landfill in mauritius. Journal of Environmental Health, 72(1): 48-54.
  10. Gorsevski, P.V., K.R. Donevska, C.D. Mitrovski and J.P. Frizado, 2011. Integrating multi-criteria evaluation techniques with geographic information systems for landfill site selection: A case study using ordered weighted average. Waste Management.
  11. Gorsevski, P.V. and P. Jankowski, 2010. An optimized solution of multi-criteria evaluation analysis of landslide susceptibility using fuzzy sets and kalman filter. Computers & Geosciences, 36(8): 1005-1020.
  12. Guerra-Hernández, A., J. Castro-Manzano and A. El-Fallah-Seghrouchni, 2008. Toward an agentspeak (l) theory of commitment and intentional learning. MICAI 2008: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 848-858.
  13. Guerra-Hernández, A., J. Castro-Manzano and A. El Fallah Seghrouchni, 2009. Ctl agentspeak (l): A specification language for agent programs. Journal of Algorithms, 64(1): 31-40.
  14. Hall, D., Y. Guo, R.A. Davis and C. Cegielski, 2005. Extending unbounded systems thinking with agent-oriented modeling: Conceptualizing a multiple perspective decision-making support system. Decision support systems, 41(1): 279-295.
  15. Jankowski, P., 1995. Integrating geographical information systems and multiple criteria decision-making methods. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 9(3): 251-273.
  16. Jordan, H., P. Roderick, D. Martin and S. Barnett, 2004. Distance, rurality and the need for care: Access to health services in south west england. International Journal of Health Geographics, 3(1): 21.
  17. Jun, C., 2000. Design of an intelligent geographic information system for multi-criteria site analysis. URISA-WASHINGTON DC-, 12(3): 5-18.
  18. Kouznetsova, M., X. Huang, J. Ma, L. Lessner and D.O. Carpenter, 2007. Increased rate of hospitalization for diabetes and residential proximity of hazardous waste sites. Environmental health perspectives, 115(1): 75.
  19. Ligtenberg, A., Wachowicz, M., Bregt, AK., Beulens, A., Kettenis, DL, 2004. A design and application of a multi-agent system for simulation of multi-actor spatial planning. Journal of environmental management, 72(1-2): 43-55.
  20. Maes, P., 1994. Modeling adaptive autonomous agents. Artif. Life J., 1: 135-162.
  21. Radiarta, I.N., S.I. Saitoh and A. Miyazono, 2008. Gis-based multi-criteria evaluation models for identifying suitable sites for japanese scallop (mizuhopecten yessoensis) aquaculture in funka bay, southwestern hokkaido, japan. Aquaculture, 284(1-4): 127-135.
  22. Rahman, M.A., B. Rusteberg, R. Gogu, J. Lobo Ferreira and M. Sauter, 2012. A new spatial multi-criteria decision support tool for site selection for implementation of managed aquifer recharge. Journal of environmental management, 99: 61-75.
  23. Rojanamon, P., T. Chaisomphob and T. Bureekul, 2009. Application of geographical information system to site selection of small run-of-river hydropower project by considering engineering/economic/ environmental criteria and social impact. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13: 2336–2348.
  24. Ross, L.G., N. Handisyde, D.C. Nimmo, G. Burnell and G. Allan, 2009. Spatial decision support in aquaculture: The role of geographical information systems and remote sensing. New technologies in aquaculture: improving production efficiency, quality and environmental management: 707-749.
  25. Saaty, T.L., 1980. Analytic hierarchy process. Wiley Online Library.
  26. Salminen, P., J. Hokkanen and R. Lahdelma, 1998. Comparing multicriteria methods in the context of environmental problems. European Journal of Operational Research, 104(3): 485-496.
  27. Sener, S., E. Sener, B. Nas and R. Karagüzel, 2010. Combining ahp with gis for landfill site selection: A case study in the lake beysehir catchment area (konya, turkey). Waste Management, 30(11): 2037-2046.
  28. Silva, C., J. Ferreira, S. Bricker, T. DelValls, M. Martín-Díaz and E. Yáñez, 2011. Site selection for shellfish aquaculture by means of gis and farm-scale models, with an emphasis on data-poor environments. Aquaculture.
  29. Tweedale, J., N. Ichalkaranje, C. Sioutis, B. Jarvis, A. Consoli and G. Phillips-Wren, 2007. Innovations in multi-agent systems. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 30(3): 1089-1115.
  30. Vahidnia, M.H., A.A. Alesheikh and A. Alimohammadi, 2009. Hospital site selection using fuzzy ahp and its derivatives. Journal of environmental management, 90(10): 3048-3056.
  31. Wang, G., L. Qin, G. Li and L. Chen, 2009. Landfill site selection using spatial information technologies and ahp: A case study in beijing, china. Journal of environmental management, 90(8): 2414-2421.
  32. Zadeh, L.A., 1965. Fuzzy sets. Information and control, 8(3): 338-353.
  33. Zadeh, L.A., 1978. Fuzzy sets as a basis for a theory of possibility. Fuzzy sets and systems, 1(1): 3-28.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article

( 1 ) Hospital Site Selection Using a BDI Agent Model
( 3 ) Micro Level Geo-Resistivity Survey through V.E.S. Test for Groundwater Feasibility Study and Selection of Bore Well Sites in Pipili Block of Puri
( 4 ) Wind To Select the Recreation Flying Site
( 5 ) Analysis of Dioxins Concentration in Domestic Waste and Burnt Tyre Residue at Gosa Dumpsite in Abuja, Nigeria
( 6 ) Landfill Site Selection Using Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) Method and Artificial Neural Network Method; A Case Study from Lorestan Province, Iran
( 7 ) Interdisciplinary Studies of Ancient and the Most Ancient Heritage Sites in the Geography of Culture
( 8 ) Zoning of Natural and Man-Made Disasters for Relief and Rescue Centers Site Selection Using the Model Logic (Case Study: Guilan Rural Area)
( 9 ) Assessment of Environmental Effect of Abandoned Uranium Mine Site in Mika Village of Taraba State Nigeria
( 14 ) Habitat Selection and Threats of Red Fox (Vulpes Vulpes) in Rara National Park, Nepal
( 16 ) Optimal Density Determination of Bouguer Anomaly Using Fractal Analysis (Case of Study: Charak Area, Iran)
( 17 ) Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for Achieving Desire BA in the Biotransformation of Benzaldehyde Using Free Cells of Saccharomyces Cerevisae and the Effect of Β-Cyclodextrin
( 18 ) Flood Hazard Assessment and Decisions Support Using Geographic Information System: A Case Study of Uyo Capital City, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
( 19 ) Energy Trading and Congestion Management Using Real and Reactive Power Rescheduling and Load Curtailment
( 20 ) Energy Consumption and Thermal Comfort Analysis of Public Housing in Sao Paulo, Brazil
( 21 ) Sequestration Rate of Heavy Metal Contaminants Using Riccia Fluitans as Potential Phytoremediation Agent in Polluted Aquatic Ecosystem
( 22 ) Economic Load Dispatch in Thermal Power Plant Considering Additional Constraints Using Curve Fitting and Ann
( 23 ) Phytoremediation Model System for Aquaculture Wastewater Using Glossostigma Elatinoides and Hemianthus Callitrichoides
( 24 ) Comparative Assessment of Co2 Emission Factors Estimated Using Stack Flue Gas Measurement Data for Two Types of Brick Kiln: A Case Study in Phu Tho Province, Vietnam
( 25 ) Presentation of Empirical Equations for Estimating Internal Friction Angle of SP and SC Soils in Mashhad, Iran Using Standard Penetration and Direct Shear Tests and Comparison with Previous Equations
( 26 ) Determining the Optimal Density of Neka Using Fractal Method and the Study of Its Geological Situation
( 27 ) Improving the Geological Understanding of the Niger Delta Basin of Nigeria Using Airborne Gravity Data
( 28 ) Residential Housing Quality Assessment Based on the Criteria of Sustainable Housing (Case Study: Residential Complex of 100 Units of Region 1 City of Zahedan)
( 30 ) Soil Erosion Hazard Mapping in Central Zab Basin Using Epm Model in GIS Environment
( 32 ) Sensitivity Analysis and Vulnerability Mapping of the Guilan Aquifer Using Drastic Method
( 33 ) Using Rubber Aggregate Derived from Discarded Tires for Producing Cement Concrete towards Resource Recovery and Environmental Protection in Vietnam
( 34 ) Evaluation of Road Traffic Energy Harvesting Using Piezoelectricity
( 35 ) Reinforcing Kenya Power National Grid Using Statcom Devices
( 36 ) Implementable Approach of Addressing the Challenges of Cloud Based Smart City Using IoT
( 37 ) Biostratigraphy and Paleoecology of Maastrichtian and Paleocene Sediments in the Northern Alborz, Iran, Using Foraminifera
( 38 ) Using Refined Phosphogypsum to Replace Natural Gypsum in Portland Cement Production in Vietnam
( 39 ) Modelling and Simulation of PV Solar-Thermoelectric Generators Using Nano Fluids
( 40 ) Reading Activities in Kauman Area, Parakan, Indonesia, During the Colonial Era Using Mapping Analysis
( 41 ) Assessing Spatial and Temporal Precipitation Dynamics in Upper East Region of Ghana Using Chirps Data from 1981 to 2016
( 42 ) Characterization of Regolith Types and its Impact on Gold Anomaly in Highly Weathered Terrains Using Multiple Dataset
( 43 ) Location Mapping of Hydrothermal Alteration Using Landsat 8 Data: A Case of Study in Prestea Huni Valley District, Ghana
( 47 ) Land Use Change Modelling In Developing Countries: Issues And Prospects