International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Online ISSN: 2313-2752
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No. 10

Genetic Evaluation and Activity of Antifungal against Clinical Isolates Candida Albicans Biofilms

Pages: 119-125
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Genetic Evaluation and Activity of Antifungal against Clinical Isolates Candida Albicans Biofilms

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Jaqueline Derissi Braz , Nayla De Souza Pitangui , Caetano Toshiro Yamashita , Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida , Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini , Janaina De Cássia Orlandi Sardi

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Jaqueline Derissi Braz , Nayla De Souza Pitangui , Caetano Toshiro Yamashita , Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida , Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini , Janaina De Cássia Orlandi Sardi (2014). Genetic Evaluation and Activity of Antifungal against Clinical Isolates Candida Albicans Biofilms. International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research, 1(10): 119-125. DOI:
 Candida yeasts are common in the oral cavity and can cause candidosis in the presence of predisposing factors, especially diabetes. The manifestation of the disease is related to this set of local factors such as the presence of dental prostheses, salivary pH, salivary flow and tobacco and the ability to form biofilms. Biofilms are specific and organized communities of cells under the control of signaling molecules rather than random accumulations of cells resulting from cell division and frequently are drugs resistance.  Aim: The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic patterns of these C. albicans isolates and to evaluate the in vitro activity amphotericin B and caspofungin against C. albicans biofilms. Methods: Microbial samples were collected from subgingival sites and seeded in CHROMagar for subsequent identification of C. albicans by PCR. Genotypes were defined based on the identification of the transposable introns in the 25S rDNA by PCR. Results: In this study, 6 strains were identified as C. albicans and of these, 3 strains were genotype A and 3 were genotype B. The results showed that both amphotericin B and caspofungin exhibited strong antifungal activities against C. albicans biofilm formation and inhibiting the biofilm formation ranging from 70.8 – 95.3% and 77.7 - 88.7%, respectively. The antifungals studied had low inhibitory effect on preformed   biofims, ranging from 39.5 - 50.8% for amphotericin B and from 23.1 - 36.9% for caspofungin at the same concentration. The activity of the two drugs was most effective in inhibit biofilm formation. 


Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in existent in literature, demonstrating that clinical isolates that deserve special attention in connection with the difficulty of treatment. 

The Level and Associated Factors Of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Blood Donation among Health Science Students of Addis Ababa University

Pages: 105-118
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The Level and Associated Factors Of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Blood Donation among Health Science Students of Addis Ababa University

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Chalachew Misganaw , Meaza Tenkir , Andualem Deresea , Megdelawit Tesfaye , Tesfalem Teshome Tessema , Hawult Taye

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Chalachew Misganaw , Meaza Tenkir , Andualem Deresea , Megdelawit Tesfaye , Tesfalem Teshome Tessema , Hawult Taye (2014). The Level and Associated Factors Of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Blood Donation among Health Science Students of Addis Ababa University. International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research, 1(10): 105-118. DOI:
Introduction: Blood can save millions of life. Blood is the cure, and- man is only source of that cure. The 2012 world blood donor day campaign is "Every blood donor is a hero" focuses on the idea that every one of us can become a hero by donating blood. The percentage of blood collected from voluntary Blood donors and the average annual blood collection rate in Ethiopia are extremely low.
Objective: To assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of blood donation and associated factors among health science students in Addis Ababa University.
Method: A quantitative institution based cross-sectional study design was used to conduct the survey on May 2014 among health science students in Addis Ababa University. There were a total of 384 respondents    selected from six departments of the College of Health Sciences in the university. Stratified sampling technique followed by systematic sampling was applied to select respondents. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data.  Data will be cleaned, edited, coded and entered on SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics was applied to describe variables. An analysis of logistic regressions for identifying associated factors was done. A significance level of less than or equal to 0.05 was considered significant.
Result: More than half of the participants, 206 (53.6%) were males and the age range of most of respondents, (90%) were from 19-24 years.  Fifty six percent of respondents were studying medicine. Three hundred twenty one (83.7 %) and 63(16.4%) of respondents have high and low level of knowledge regarding blood donation. Increased year of study and being students in the department of medicine and nursing increased the odds of level of knowledge of respondents on blood donation. Being age > 25 years increased odds of knowledge [AOR (95% CI) =5.092 (1.1, 24.2)].  One third, 123(32%) of respondents have unfavorable attitude towards blood donation.
 Being male increased odds of favorable attitude [AOR (95% CI) =2.2 (1.4, 3.6)]. Less than one quarter, 90 (23.4%) have ever donated blood. Among these, 38(42.2%) of them were a regular donors. Being male increased odds of practice [AOR (95% CI) =3.9 (1.4, 10.8)] and being age >25 increased odds of practice [AOR (95% CI) =6.5 (1.6, 26.9)
Conclusion and recommendations
The level of knowledge on blood donation is high, however, significant number of students in this study have unfavorable attitude towards blood donation. Practice of blood donation is good. In this study, being male, age > 25 and increased year of study and department have significant association.  The university in collaboration with Red Cross society should increase and strengthen clubs. Moreover, clubs in the university should organize different events to build students attitude positively and to increase the number of blood donors.

Contribution/ Originality
The percentage of blood collected from voluntary Blood donors and the average annual blood collection rate in Ethiopia are extremely low. Lack of adequate and safe blood supply results in significant number of morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. To understand these, this study is the first of its kind to investigate the level of knowledge, attitude and practice and associated factors of blood donation among health science students.