International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

Published by: Asian Medical Journals
Online ISSN: 2313-2752
Print ISSN: 2313-7746
Quick Submission    Login/Submit/Track

No. 9

Prevalence and Factors Associated With Refractive Error among Primary School Children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Pages: 92-104
Find References

Finding References


Prevalence and Factors Associated With Refractive Error among Primary School Children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search
Cite

Citation: 1

Nebiyat kassa , Alemayehu Woldeyes , Chalachew Misganaw

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

  1. A. Koroye-Egbe, G. Ovenseri-Ogbomo, and A. Adio, "Refractive error status in Bayelsa State, Nigeria," Journal of the Nigerian Optometric Association, vol. 16.1, pp. 11-15, 2010.
  2. T. Kassa and D. A. Getu, "Prevalence of refractive errors in pre-school and school children of Debark and Kola Diba towns, North-Western Ethiopia," Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, vol. 17.2, pp. 117-124, 2004.
  3. Y. Berhane, A. Worku, A. Bejiga, L. Adamu, W. Alemayehu, A. Bedri, and S. West, "National survey on blindness, low vision and trachoma in Ethiopia: Methods and study clusters profile," Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, vol. 21, pp. 185-203, 2008.
  4. World Health Organization, "Global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness: Action plan 2006-2011," 2007.
  5. S. Resnikoff, "Global magnitude of visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive errors in 2004," Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 86.1, pp. 63-70, 2008.
  6. S. Resnikoff, "Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002," Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 82.11, pp. 844-851, 2004.
  7. A. Fotouhi, "The prevalence of refractive errors among schoolchildren in Dezful, Iran," British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 91.3, pp. 287-292, 2007.
  8. R. Dandona and D. Lalit, "Refractive error blindness," Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 79.3, pp. 237-243, 2001.
  9. "Plan and budget support process city government of Addis Ababa education bureau," Education Statistics Annual Abstract Addis Ababa, pp. 11-18, 2011.
  10. A. W. Yared, "Prevalence of refractive errors among school children in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia," Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 19.4, p. 372, 2012.
  11. J. Par, Introduction to ophthalmology, 3rd ed. Dunedin, Newzealand: Oxford Medical Publications.
  12. A. S. Padhye, "Prevalence of uncorrected refractive error and other eye problems among urban and rural school children," Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 16.2, p. 69, 2009.
  13. Z. Mehari and A. Yimer, "Prevalence of refractive error among school children in rural central Ethiopia," Clinical and Experimental Optometry, vol. 96, pp. 65-69, 2013.
  14. G. Pokharel, A. Negrel, S. R. Munoz, and L. Ellwein, "Refractive error study in children: Results from mechi zone, Nepal," AM J Ophthalmol., vol. 129, pp. 445-54, 2000.
  15. N. Robert, "Refractive error and ethnicity in children," Arch Ophthalmol., vol. 121, pp. 1141–1147, 2003.
  16. I. Opubiri and C. Pedro-Egbe, "Screening for refractive error among primary school children in Bayelsa State, Nigeria," Pan African Medical Journal, vol. 14, 2013.
  17. C. Chuka-Okosa, "Refractive error among students of a post primary institution in a rural community in South Eastern Nigeria," W Afr J Med., vol. 24, pp. 62-65, 2005.
  18. K. Naidoo, A. Raghunandan, K. Mashige, P. Govender, B. Holden, G. Pokharel, and L. Ellwein, "Refractive error and visual impairment in African children in South Africa," Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci., vol. 44, pp. 3764–3770, 2003.
  19. M. K. Muma, "Prevalence of refractive errors among primary school pupils in Kilungu Division of Makueni District, Kenya," Medical Journal of Zambia, vol. 36.4, pp. 165-170, 2009.
  20. S. R. Salomão, M. R. Mitsuhiro, and B. J. Rubens, "Visual impairment and blindness: An overview of prevalence and causes in Brazil," Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, vol. 81.3, pp. 539-549, 2009.
  21. F. A. Al Wadaani, T. T. Amin, A. Ali, and A. R. Khan, "Prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia," Global Journal of Health Science, vol. 5, p. 125, 2012.
  22. H. Singh, V. K. Saini, A. Yadav, and B. Soni, "Refractive errors in school going children-data from a school screening survey programme," National Journal of Community Medicine, vol. 4, 2013.
  23. A. Mohammad, "Prevalence of refractive errors among pre-school children at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia," Saudi J Ophthalmol., vol. 24, pp. 45–48, 2010.
Nebiyat kassa , Alemayehu Woldeyes , Chalachew Misganaw (2014). Prevalence and Factors Associated With Refractive Error among Primary School Children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research, 1(9): 92-104. DOI:
Introduction: - Refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism) affect the whole spectrum of the population irrespective of age, gender, race and ethnic group. Such refractive errors can be easily diagnosed, measured and corrected with glasses or other refractive corrections to attain normal vision. In the last few years, considerable attention has not been given to the contribution of refractive errors to global cause of visual impairment and blindness.  Ethiopia is one of the least developed countries in Africa, with relatively poor health service coverage especially of eye health care and is believed to have one of the world’s highest rates of blindness. Refractive error is the second leading cause of low vision in Ethiopia accounting for 33.4%, and the leading cause of blindness accounting for 7.8%.
Objectives:-To assess prevalence and associated factors of refractive error among primary school children.
Methods: - An institution based cross sectional study of 1800 students in four elementary schools in Arada and Gullele sub cities was conducted from February 29- April 15, 2014. Subjects were selected by multistage random sampling. Data was collected by pretested questionnaire. Data collected was cleaned, coded and entered to SPSS version 20.0 for analysis. Bivariate logistic analysis using odds ratio was made to assess predictor variables. Beside, multivariate analysis was applied to control confounding variables. A confidence interval, which does not contain one, is significant. 
Result: - This cross sectional study was comprised of 695 male and 1105 female, from 4 randomly selected elementary schools with a response rate of 99.4%. Refractive errors in either eye or both were present in 71 students (4%). Of these myopia was diagnosed in 19(26.7%), 12(17%) of them have Astigmatism, 10(14%) of them were with Myopic astigmatism, 6(8.4%) of them had Hyperopia, and 3(4.2%) of them had Hyperopic astigmatism on both eyes, 21(29.6%) participants had Anisometropia. Being male and not having visual impairment decreases the odds of refractory error with odds of [(95%AOR.573 (.331-.994) and 95%AOR.312 (.180-.540)] respectively.
Conclusion and recommendation: - Refractive error among children is a common problem in school age and they should be screened at least once in their stay in the elementary school.

Contribution/ Originality
As to the knowledge of the authors, no such study is conducted in the urban central part of Ethiopia. Most studies were done in the northern and rural central part of the country. Therefore, this study investigated prevalence and factors associated with refractory error in the urban central part of the country.

Prevalence and Infection Patterns of Geo-Helminthiasis in a Rural Community along River Okumeshi, Delta State, Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study

Pages: 82-91
Find References

Finding References


Prevalence and Infection Patterns of Geo-Helminthiasis in a Rural Community along River Okumeshi, Delta State, Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search
Cite

Jephtha C. Nmor

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

  1. J. Roche and A. Bento, "Prevalence of intestinal parasite infections with special reference to entamoeba histolytica on the Island of Bioko (Equitorial Guinea)," American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 60, pp. 257-262, 1999.
  2. J. Nmor, J. Onojafe, and B. Omu, "Anthropogenic indices of soil- transmitted helminthiasis among children in Delta State, Southern Nigeria," Iranian Journal of Public Health, vol. 38, pp. 31-38, 2009.
  3. T. Wegayehu, T. Tsalla, B. Seifu, and T. Tek, "Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among Highland and Lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia," BMC Public Health, vol. 13, p. 151, 2013.
  4. L. Chan, S. Kan, and D. Bundy, "The effect of repeated chemotherapy on age-related predisposition of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura," Parasitology, vol. 104, pp. 371-377, 1992.
  5. O. Adeyeba and A. Akinlabi, "Intestinal parasitic infections among school children in a rural community Southwest Nigeria," The Nigeria Journal of Parasitology, vol. 23, pp. 11-18, 2002.
  6. M. Ogbe, E. Edet, and M. Isichei, "Intestinal helminth infection in primary school children in area of operation of shell petroleum development company of Nigeria (SPDC), Western division in Delta State," Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, vol. 23, pp. 3-10, 2002.
  7. World Health Organization, Bench aids for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites. Geneva: Laboratory Manual, World Health Organization, 1994.
  8. C. Andrade, T. Alava, I. De Palacio, C. Jamoletti, M. Gullelta, and A. Montressor, "Prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the city of Portoviejo (Ecuador)," Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 92, pp. 209-217, 2001.
  9. P. Agi, "Pattern of infection of intestinal parasites in Sagbama community of the Niger Delta, Nigeria," West Africa Journal of Medicine, vol. 14, pp. 39-42, 1995.
  10. S. Esrey, J. Potash, L. Roberts, and C. Shiff, "Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hook worm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma," Bulletin of World Health Organization, vol. 65, pp. 609-621, 1999.
  11. J. Van Derslice, B. Popkin, and J. Briscoe, "Drinking water quality, sanitation, breast feeding: Their interactive effects on infant health," Bulletin of World Health Organization, vol. 72, pp. 589-601, 1994.
  12. A. Mahfouz, H. El-Morshedy, H. Farghaly, and A. Khalil, "Ecological determinants of intestinal parasitic infections among pre-school children in an urban squatter settlement of Egypt," Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, vol. 43, pp. 341-344, 1994.
  13. O. Ukpai and C. Ugwu, "The prevalence of gastrointestinal tract parasites in primary school children Ikwuano local government area of Abia State, Nigeria," Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, vol. 24, pp. 129-136, 2003.
  14. S. Pukuma and M. Sale, "Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections among children of Vunoklang primary school in moderei ward of girei local government area of Adamawa State, Nigeria," The Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, vol. 27, pp. 73-75, 2007.
  15. S. Etim, P. Akpan, S. Abeshi, O. Effion, and K. Enyi-Doh, "Intestinal helminths in children: Implications for helmimth control using school using school based mass chemotherapy," Nigeria Journal of Parasitology, vol. 23, pp. 53-60, 2002.
  16. O. Agbolade, D. Akinboye, and A. Awolaja, "Intestinal helminthiasis and urinary schistosmiasis in some villages of Ijebu North, Ogun State, Nigeria," African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 3, pp. 206-209, 2004.
  17. S. Fashuyi, "The pattern of human intestinal helminthes infections in fanning communities in different parts of Ondo State. Nigeria," West African Journal of Medicine, vol. 11, p. 1, 1992.
  18. A. Mengistu, S. Gebre-Selassie, and T. Kassa, "Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among urban dwellers in Southwest Ethiopia," Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, vol. 21, pp. 12-17, 2007.
  19. J. Mbanuga and C. Abazie, "A comparative study of intestinal parasitic infections of pregnant and non-pregnant women in Nkpor. Anambra State," Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, vol. 23, pp. 19-26, 2002.
Jephtha C. Nmor (2014). Prevalence and Infection Patterns of Geo-Helminthiasis in a Rural Community along River Okumeshi, Delta State, Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research, 1(9): 82-91. DOI:
 Background:  Information on geo-helminth infections in Akoku community has never been reported. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and pattern of geo-helminth infections among this population, and to evaluate the impact of water source and faecal disposal system on the prevalence of geo-helminth infection.
Methods: Stool samples from 300 children aged between 0 and 15 year were screened for the presence of geo-helminth infections using direct smear method and kato-katz techniques.
Results: 240(80.0%) children were infected and a triad pattern of Ascaris lumbricoides (156, 52.0 %), hookworm (48, 16.0%) and Trichuris trichiura (36, 12.0%) were observed. There was no sex disparity and no significant difference (p>0.5) in the prevalence of geo-heminthiasis. Prevalence was highest among age group of 0-5 years, infection rate decreasing with increasing age. Multiple helminth infection was highest for A. lumbricoides and Hookworms combination (24, 10.0%). There was significant difference in multiple parasitic infections (P < 0.05). Those subjects using stream water were more infected compared to those using well and pipe bone water (P < 0.05) and those using nearby bushes as source of disposal of faeces were more significantly affected (P < 0.05). 
Conclusion: The high prevalence of geo-helminth infections suggests that parasitic infections are important public health problems. Thus, enhancing socioeconomic status, improving sanitation facilities, instilling health education and promoting ways of keeping personal hygiene can be good strategies to control these infections in the area.


Contribution/ Originality
This study documents for the first time the prevalence and infection patterns of geo-helminthiasis in this rural community. The findings showed that parasitic infections are public health problems among this population and that A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura are the common helminths that cause parasitic infection in the study area.