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Introduction: In the context of public health, there are many problems in Indonesia, for instances the variation of many islands like Java , Sumatra, Kalimantan, Papua, Bali, Nusa Tenggara and so on, the huge number of population, the variation of tribes, income, public health services, the making of public health policy and so on. In relation to the above mentioned, then the application of public health program are need to be taken into mind, because of based on that there will be the variations of role of health and medical profession in the many differences of occupations. Method & Discussion: this paper is made based on library studies that compile from many data which hopefully can be used to construct the right of scientific writing in the context of public health sciences in relation to the General Medicine. Result & Discussion: quite clear that there are many public health aspects that need to be taken into policy in relation to clinical aspects, health financing aspects, health economic aspects, and the like which in general it will come to at least the understanding of primary health services and secondary health services functions. There is a need to develop the real and perfect program of the General Physician who can be used to support the Primary Health Centre. It means that what the Indonesian need to be implemented is not only the health financing program, but also the right Medical Education Program, the right Family Medicine Program, the right Primary Health Care, the right Population Health Care, and so on. Conclusion: there is a need to manage the role of health and medical profession in Indonesia in a specific way, where then based on that they can work together in a harmony with many other occupations, for instance sociologist, psychologist, lawyer, technique experts, and so on.
This study contributes in the existing literature of public health and primary care in Indonesia. This study uses new estimation methodology of Public Health’s policy and originates new formula to be healthy. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that there is a need to increase the doctor’s knowledge and skills.
The Correlation between Educational Level and Incidence of Syphilis among Female Sex Workers within 7 Cities in Indonesia in 2007
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Roselinda Rusli , Nelly Puspandari , Vivi Setiawaty (2015). The Correlation between Educational Level and Incidence of Syphilis among Female Sex Workers within 7 Cities in Indonesia in 2007. International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research, 2(8): 141-149. DOI: 10.18488/journal.9/2015.2.8/188.8.131.52
Background: Syphilis is a chronic disease that may cause disability among patients and the child that is delivered by the patient. It is a sexually transmitted disease (STD), caused by Treponema pallidum. Syphilis may increase transmission of HIV/AIDS. The objective of this article is to reveal prevalence of syphilis and its risk factors among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) in 7 cities in Indonesia in 2007. Methods: The data analyzed in this article is derived from cross sectional study among FSWs in 7 cities in Indonesia in 2007. The respondents were chosen by cluster random sampling from Kupang, Samarinda, Pontianak, Yogyakarta, Timika, Makassar and Tangerang. Blood specimens were collected from respondents who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The Diagnosis of Syphilis confirmed in accordance with the results of Rapid Plasma Reagen (RPR) and Treponema Pallidum Haemaglutination Assay (TPHA), and the educational data were collected by using structured questionnaire. Results: There were 1750 respondents who had the complete data, 12,2% respondent were diagnosed as Syphilis. The highest prevalence of Syphilis was in Makassar (64,5%). Indirect FSWs had infections 2,22 times higher compared to direct FSWs (RRa = 2,22 ; 95% CI = 1,67 – 2,96 ; p = 0,000). FSWs that never had formal study had 2.48 times higher incidence of syphilis compared to the high school graduates and university degree holders [Adjusted Relative Risk (RRa) = 2,84 ; 95% CI = 1,46 – 5,52 ; p = 0.002].Conclusion: Lack of knowledge because of low education among FSWs and no clinical symptoms in the early stage of syphilis makes its prevalence remained high. The Risk of syphilis among indirect FSWs was higher than the direct ones because of the difficulty to be reached by STD controlling programed.
This study is one of the few studies which have investigated correlation between syphilis incidence and education level within female sex workers in Indonesia. It uses the Cox regression method backward hierarchy elimination (BHE) for the statistical analyses.