K. Latham and D. Whitaker, "A comparison of word recognition and reading performance in foveal and peripheral vision," Vision Research, vol. 36, pp. 2665–2674, 1996.
S. T. L. Chung, J. S. Mansfield, and G. E. Legge, "Psychophysics of reading. XVIII. The effect of print size on reading speed in normal peripheral vision," Vision Research, vol. 38, pp. 2949–2962, 1998.
J. C. J. Hoeks, L. A. Stowe, and G. Doedens, "Seeing words in context: The interaction of lexical and sentence level information during reading. Brain research," Cognitive Brain Research, vol. 19, pp. 59–73, 2004.
J. Lüdtke and B. Kaup, "Context effects when reading negative and affirmative sentences," in Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science, 2006, pp. 1735–1740.
N. H. Buari, A. Chen, and N. Musa, "Comparison of reading speed with 3 different log-scaled reading charts," Journal of Optometry, vol. 7, pp. 210–216, 2014.
Z. Mohammed and R. Omar, "Comparison of reading performance between visually impaired and normally sighted students in Malaysia," British Journal of Visual Impairment, vol. 29, pp. 196–207, 2011.
P. Quémart, S. Casalis, and P. Colé, "The role of form and meaning in the processing of written morphology: A priming study in French developing readers," Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, vol. 109, pp. 478–96, 2011.
S. L. Yeh, S. He, and P. Cavanagh, "Semantic priming from crowded words," Psychological Science, vol. 23, pp. 608–16, 2012.
G. Douglas, "Reading errors made by children with low vision," Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics, vol. 24, pp. 319-22, 2004.
Noor Halilah Buari , Mardiah Farhana Azizan , Ai-Hong Chen (2015). Comparison of Reading Speed Using Malay Unrelated Word Reading Chart with Standardized English Reading Charts. International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research, 2(3): 55-61. DOI: 10.18488/journal.9/2015.2.3/188.8.131.52
The objective of this study was to compare the reading speed of Malay language unrelated words reading chart named the Universiti Teknologi MARA unrelated words (UiTM-Muw) reading chart with Colenbrander reading chart and MNRead acuity chart. The participants were asked to read three different reading charts at random order, aloud and as quickly as possible. The time taken to read each chart was recorded and any error made while reading was noted. Reading speed was quantified as correct words read in a minute (cwpm). Comparison of reading speed showed a significant difference in reading speed between UiTM-Muw reading chart and Colenbrander reading chart [t(98)=-16.79, p=0.001] as well as MNread acuity chart [t(98)=-18.72, p=0.001]. However, weak agreement was found between reading speed of UiTM-Muw reading chart with MNRead acuity chart (mean difference = -83.6 cwpm) and Colenbrander reading chart (mean difference = -81.9 cwpm). Hence, UiTM-Muw reading chart in Malay language was incomparable with standardized English reading chart.
Xerostomia in Geriatric Population: An Insight into Etiopathogenesis, Diagnosis and Management
J. Guggenheim and P. Moore, "Xerostomia: Etiology, recognition and treatment," J Am Dent Assoc., vol. 134, pp. 61-9, 2003.
C. Scully and D. Felix, "Oral medicine-update for the dental practitioner. Dry mouth and disorders of salivation," Br Dent J., vol. 199, pp. 423-427, 2005.
J. Ship, P. Fox, and B. Baum, "How much saliva is enough? ‘Normal’ function defined," J Am Dent Assoc., vol. 122, pp. 63-9, 1991.
I. Valdez and P. Fox, "Diagnosis and management of salivary dysfunction," Crit Rev Oral Biol Med., vol. 4, pp. 271-277, 1993.
M. Turner, L. Jahangiri, and J. Ship, "Hyposalivation, xerostomia and the complete denture. A systematic review," JADA, vol. 139, pp. 146–150, 2008.
N. Navazesh and K. K. Satish, "Measuring salivary flow challenges and opportunities," JADA, vol. 139, pp. 35S–40S, 2008.
P. Fox, "Differentiation of dry mouth etiology," Adv Dent Res., vol. 10, pp. 13–16, 1996.
T. Narhi, "Prevalence of subjective feelings of dry mouth in the elderly," J Dent Res., vol. 73, pp. 20–25, 1994.
M. Heft and B. Baum, "Unstimulated and stimulated parotid salivary flow rate in individuals of different
K. Ikebe, K. Morii, K. Matsuda, and T. Nokubi, "Discrepancy between satisfaction with mastication, food acceptability and masticatory performance in older adults," Int J Prosthodont., vol. 20, pp. 161-67, 2007.
L. Sreebny and S. Schwartz, "A reference guide to drugs and dry mouth-2nd edition," Gerodontology, vol. 14, pp. 33–47, 1997.
E. Chrischilles, D. Foley, and R. Wallace, "Use of medications by persons 65 and over: Data from the established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly," J Gerontol., vol. 47, pp. M137–44, 1992.
M. Hensley, L. Schuchter, and y. C. Lindle, "American society of clinical oncology clinical practice guidelines for the use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy protectants," J Clin Oncol., vol. 17, pp. 3333–55, 1999.
B. Thomas, J. Brown, and M. McGurk, "Salivary gland disease," Front Oral Biol., pp. 129-46, 2010.
J. Pijpe, W. Kalk, and H. Bootsma, "Progression of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with Sjogren’s syndrome," Ann Rheum Dis., vol. 66, pp. 107-12, 2007.
N. Rhodus and J. Bereuter, "Clinical evaluation of a commercially available oral moisturizer in relieving signs and symptoms of xerostomia in postirradiation head and neck cancer patients and patients with Sjogren's syndrome," J Otolaryngol., vol. 29, pp. 28-34, 2000.
Manu Rathee , Mohaneesh Bhoria (2015). Xerostomia in Geriatric Population: An Insight into Etiopathogenesis, Diagnosis and Management. International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research, 2(3): 50-54. DOI: 10.18488/journal.9/2015.2.3/184.108.40.206
It is observed in geriatric population that a variety of changes occur with aging that can impact social, physiologic and psychological well being. Most people, however, experience a decrease or complete absence in salivary flow. Salivary dysfunction in old age is a consequence of debilitating systemic diseases and related medications, head and neck radiotherapy and reduced functional reserve that detrimentally impact nutritional status and general health. This article provides an overview on salivary gland hypofunction in geriatric population, etiopathogenesis and management strategies.
This compilation documents the causes and treatment of xerostomia among geriatric population in a comprehensive way.