International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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No. 1

Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Cyphostemma Digitatum on Serum Lipid Profile and Liver Enzymes in Hyperlipidemic Subjects

Pages: 15-24
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Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Cyphostemma Digitatum on Serum Lipid Profile and Liver Enzymes in Hyperlipidemic Subjects

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.9/2015.2.1/9.1.15.24

Citation: 1

Mohammed A. Al-Duais , Qais A. Nogaim , Yahya S. Al-Awthan , Aisha Al-Dherasi

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Mohammed A. Al-Duais , Qais A. Nogaim , Yahya S. Al-Awthan , Aisha Al-Dherasi (2015). Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Cyphostemma Digitatum on Serum Lipid Profile and Liver Enzymes in Hyperlipidemic Subjects. International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research, 2(1): 15-24. DOI: 10.18488/journal.9/2015.2.1/9.1.15.24
Aims: To examine the effects of the administration of CD on lipid metabolism and liver enzymes in hyperlipidemic subjects. Study design:  20 subjects were divided into two groups, each containing ten subjects. Each subject in the 1st group ingested 1g, while the subject in the 2nd group ingested 2g of CD powder as a broth suspension in a single daily dose before lunch during the follow up period of one month. Patients kept their individual diet relatively constant. Methodology: We included 20 hyperlipidemic volunteers (men; age range 20-50 years) of a total of 80 subjects. Blood samples were taken and analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), atherogenic index (AI), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Results: The results of the present study show a significant decrease in the levels of TC, LDL-C and TG in 1g and 2g of CD administration groups by 12.6, 24.1, 17.1% and 19.9, 25.5 23.4% respectively while the level of HDL-C was significantly increased by 45.6 and 32.5% in 1g and 2g respectively.  The atherogenic index (AI) was significantly decreased in 1g and 2g groups by and 47.4% and 45.5% respectively. Our results also show that, CD administration in 1g and 2g subjects causes a significant decrease in ALT and AST by 39.2, 32% and 48.5, 33.3% respectively while the level of ALP was non-significantly decreased. Conclusion: dietary supplementation with CD administration decreased serum lipid profile and liver enzymes in hyperlipidemic subjects. Therefore, it may be regarded as a useful therapy for hyperlipidemia and liver disease. However, further studies are required to compare it with other medicinal plants and with lipid lowering drugs.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Ibb University, Yemen, between February to June 2012.

Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Cyphostemma Digitatum on Serum Lipid Profile and Liver Enzymes in Hyperlipidemic Subjects (human) and we found that, dietary supplementation with CD administration decreased serum lipid profile and liver enzymes in hyperlipidemic subjects.

Determinants of Non-Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and Modeling Progression of Adherence Level: At Yirgalem Regional Hospital, Ethiopia; January, 2012

Pages: 1-14
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Determinants of Non-Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and Modeling Progression of Adherence Level: At Yirgalem Regional Hospital, Ethiopia; January, 2012

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.9/2015.2.1/9.1.1.14

Citation: 1

Zeray Abebe Irano , Ayele Taye , Tesfalem Teshome Tessema , Hawult Taye Adane , Chalachew Misganaw Alemayehu

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Zeray Abebe Irano , Ayele Taye , Tesfalem Teshome Tessema , Hawult Taye Adane , Chalachew Misganaw Alemayehu (2015). Determinants of Non-Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and Modeling Progression of Adherence Level: At Yirgalem Regional Hospital, Ethiopia; January, 2012. International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research, 2(1): 1-14. DOI: 10.18488/journal.9/2015.2.1/9.1.1.14
Non-adherence is a global problem and has been seen in all diseases. According to WHO, adherence to long-term therapies in chronic illnesses averages 50% in developed countries? Adherence to HAART is challenging, because patients need almost perfect adherence of at least 95 percent to keep viral load at undetectable levels as long as possible and maintain the functionality of the immune system. Poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy increases the risk of incomplete viral suppression, disease progression and death. The purpose of this study was to assess the level and factors associated with non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy. A random sample of 368 patients were taken from the ART clinic at Yirgalem Regional Hospital from September 2006 to July 2011.Adherence levels were measured using methods pill count, pill identification test, and self-report. Descriptive statistics and both Bivariate and multivariate Logistic Regression were used to analyzed the data. Homogeneous Semi-Markov Stochastic Model was used to reveal the conditional probability of staying in non-adherence. The Multivariate Logistic Regression Method showed that the gender (sex), family size, social support available to the patients, ART knowledge of the patients, time on ART in month, and baseline CD4 counts/mm3 were significant factors associated with non-adherence to ART medications. The conditional probability of staying in non-adherence, until a given time in month was higher than staying in adherence. Thus, it is suggested that health-care providers need to be watchful about adherence levels of patients. Specifically males, who have been on ART for several months, living in large family members, lack of social support, having high baseline CD4 counts/mm3, and having poor knowledge of ART. 
Contribution/ Originality
ZAI conceived and designed the study. He also wrote the paper. AT contributed in the design, conduct and write-up of the paper. He also approved the manuscript. TTT, HTA and CMA contributed in the conduct and analysis of the study. Also, they prepared the manuscript. All of the authors have read and approved the manuscript.