Johnson Olaosebikan Aremu (2018). Interrogating the Dilemma of Foreign Aid as a Tool for Economic Development in Latin America in the 20th Century. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 6(4): 189-202. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2018.64.189.202
The paper examines the dilemma of foreign aid as an invaluable tool for the economic development of Latin American region up till the 1990s. The study employed the narrative and analytical historical methods of research and analysis. Data was generated through library search. It was critically analysed employing the qualitative technique of content analysis of historical documents. The study notes that some advanced countries like USA, Canada, and Australia pumped and has still been pumping vast amount of money as aid to the region since the 1930s. Some goals of the aid regime were to: stimulate improved standard of living of citizens of Latin American states; alleviate poverty; promote rural infrastructural development and; enhance economic growth and sustainable development. Ironically, however, the paper records that all the Latin American states had to show for the huge inflow of foreign aid have been unparalleled level of corruption; huge foreign debt profile, significant level of illiteracy; political instability; incessant regime change; endemic conflicts; low level of domestic savings and significant impoverishment of women population, among others, with the possible exception to Cuba. It concludes that leaders of Latin American states should institute economic policies that are domestic-savings dependent and shun corruption to ostensibly promote sustainable development in the nearest future.
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that the huge inflow of foreign aid into Latin American states has neither translated into an improved standard of living for average citizens nor succeeded to stimulate sustainable economic development in the region over the years.
Social Media for Higher Education: A Cross Sectional Study among Teachers in India and Sri Lanka
A Chamaru De Alwis , Simmy Kurian , M.K Dinithi Padmasiri , Hareesh N. Ramanathan , Pearly Saira Chacko (2018). Social Media for Higher Education: A Cross Sectional Study among Teachers in India and Sri Lanka. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 6(4): 180-188. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2018.64.180.188
The literature bound the usage of social media by professionals and the present study posits to investigate teachers in higher education who are sophisticated users of social media today. Currently, the usages of social media by faculty personal is increasing, although their usage of social media for teaching is lacked. It is not apparent that who use social media in the classroom yet. Thereby, in line with the UTAUT-Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Model, the purpose of the present study has derived as to investigate the effects of social media in terms of performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions on behavior intention and finally on use behavior in teaching and learning activities. In addition, the study inspects the barriers that inhibit the minds of the management faculty in the use of it. The survey was conducted using standard questionnaire as online forms and printed copies. In this study, B-school faculty were considered as the population. The sampling method is used for the study is snowball sampling and 400 samples used for the study. One–Sample t-test was used for analyzing the data. Overall, the study found that there is a clear difference in the usage of social media by Indian faculty and Sri Lankan faculty.
This study contributes in the existing literature as this is the first attempt which compared the usage of social media in higher education of teachers in India and Sri Lanka as a cross sectional study.
Child Labour and Protection: An Exploration of Vulnerable Children in Lagos State, Nigeria
Olakunle Michael FOLAMI , Olufunke Justina ARUNA , Timothy IHIMOYAN , David Olabode OLATUNJI (2018). Child Labour and Protection: An Exploration of Vulnerable Children in Lagos State, Nigeria. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 6(4): 171-179. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2018.64.171.179
In recent times, there are increases in the incidence of child labor in Lagos State. Many children worked in informal sectors of the economy such as market, construction sites, beer parlors, and motor parks. Many were on the streets hawking and begging for alms. Economic doldrums, lack of parental care and forced migration were linked with the rampant in child labor in Lagos State. The problem is the Child’s Rights Act promulgated by the Lagos State government has become so ineffective. This study therefore, sets to examine the reasons for surge in child labor in recent times in Lagos State. It investigates government’s efforts in the protection of children. The study also examines parental roles in providing and nurturing children. Anomie and Social Structure Theory was used in this study to explain the reason why many children engaged in labor. This study was conducted in two areas with highest cases of child labor in Lagos State, namely: Oshodi, and Lagos Island. Qualitative method of data collection was used in this study. In-depth interviews were conducted among one hundred and ninety-eight child laborers, and fourteen welfare officers. This study found that many child laborers were abandoned by their parents, guardians and relatives. Many were truants, victims of breaking home, poverty, polygamy and forced migration. This study concluded that government should provide welfare services for children who are between Age 0 and 18. The number of children per family should also be limited to 3.
This study contributes to the existing literature on child labor and law on the protection of children.
Internet Abuse Intention at Workplace among Employees: A Malaysian Perspective
M. Krishna Moorthy , Chin Yoon Mei , Choo Wan Cing , Lee Mang Yin , Lee Xin Hui , Sew Yong Sheng , Tan Wei Lin (2018). Internet Abuse Intention at Workplace among Employees: A Malaysian Perspective. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 6(4): 156-170. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2018.64.156.170
This study examines the factors that contribute to internet abuse intention among employees of SMEs in the services sector in Malaysia. Modified Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) model has been adopted as the theoretical framework. Primary data has been collected from 500 SMEs’ employees who have access to the internet at their workplace through self-administered survey questionnaire. Attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, moral norms and external locus of control are positively related to internet abuse intention. This research has included the additional variables, moral norms (internal variable) and external locus of control (external variable) to enhance the TPB model. This research will contribute to the employers who intend to reduce the internet abuse behaviour of their employees in the workplace and as a reference for future researchers on similar topics.
This study added two more variables, external locus of control and moral norms to extend the original TPB model. From the management perspective, it would help to enhance the work productivity of Malaysian SMEs by planning various measures to avoid internet abuse intention among employees.
Effects of Teaching Methods on Basic Science Achievement and Spatial Ability of Basic Nine Boys and Girls in Kogi State, Nigeria
Thomas Aduojo Audu (2018). Effects of Teaching Methods on Basic Science Achievement and Spatial Ability of Basic Nine Boys and Girls in Kogi State, Nigeria. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 6(4): 149-155. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2018.64.149.155
The study investigated the effects of process-oriented instructional strategies on the spatial abilities of basic science students in Kogi state. Spatial ability contributes immensely to the understanding of science. 702 basic nine students, made up of 316 boys and 386 girls were used for the study. While the experimental group was taught topics in basic science using process-oriented instructional strategies, the control group was taught with lecture method. Variables such as gender and teaching strategies informed the direction of the investigation. Four null hypotheses were formulated and tested at the 0.05 level. Three research instruments; Spatial Ability Test (SAT), reliability 0.81, Basic Science Achievement Test I (BSAT I), reliability 0.87, and Basic Science Achievement Test II (BSAT II) with a reliability of 0.85 were used. Data analysis utilized percentages, frequencies, means, and t-test for independent samples. The results showed that no significant differences in basic science achievement between boys and girls taught by lecture method and those of process-oriented instructional strategies were found. Significant differences were found between the spatial abilities of girls taught by lecture and those taught by process-oriented instructional strategies and between boys taught by lecture and those taught by process-oriented instructional strategies. It was recommended that boys and girls could be taught together; thus solving the problem of space and materials/resources often expensive and relatively scarce in many Nigerian schools. Teachers should emphasize the process-oriented instructional strategies in science teaching
The study found no significant gender difference in basic science achievement between the control and experimental groups. Boys and girls taught by process-oriented strategies performed better in spatial abilities than those of lecture. So, process-oriented instructional strategies should be encouraged among both sexes hence improving their participation in national development.
Trends in Child Sexual Molestation, Rape and Incest: A View from South West Nigeria
ARUNA, Justina Olufunke (2018). Trends in Child Sexual Molestation, Rape and Incest: A View from South West Nigeria. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 6(4): 137-148. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2018.64.137.148
Out of the blues, sexual molestation, especially rape and incest is suddenly on the increase in Nigeria. Presently, many Nigerians have lost their once cherished values of decency and responsibility, in view of several cases of adult males defiling young under-aged girls being widely reported daily in both the print and electronic media. Most times, these acts of betrayal of trust are perpetrated mostly by close neighbours, uncles, pastors, imams, teachers, fathers etc. Benefitting from documentary data accessed from the Internet/web and national newspapers, In-depth Interviews (IDIs) were conducted with some personnel of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and some victims, Key Informants techniques (KIIs) were used to elicit information from the Police and Courts for the study. The paper submits that sometimes, the victim is cajoled and deceitfully taken advantage of; oftentimes, it is forceful, violent rape that leaves the victim physically and psychologically bruised and scarred. In extreme cases, the victims – especially those who resist, lose their lives or are maimed for life. The study identifies that extant provisions in both the Criminal and Penal Codes in Nigeria, on child sexual abuse, are not stringent enough, while the Nigerian Child Rights Act (CRA) (2003) is yet to be enacted by many States of the Federation, and also the attending issue of delay in the Courts. The Police are equally hampered by lack of specialized training/skills and poor logistics for quick responses. The study strongly suggests that child sexual molestation can be significantly reduced through aggressive mass sensitization programmes; the formal punishment for sexually abusing a child should be quite severe and even to the very limit permitted by the law, to serve as an effective deterrent.
The Poverty of Lecture as an Instructional Strategy in the Teaching of Science at the Secondary School Level
Thomas Aduojo Audu (2018). The Poverty of Lecture as an Instructional Strategy in the Teaching of Science at the Secondary School Level. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 6(4): 130-136. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2018.64.130.136
The issue of concern in this discourse is the poverty of lecture method of teaching in the teaching and learning of science subjects in the secondary school. Often times, science teachers cast aspersions on the prevalence of lecture in science classrooms given the popular belief that science, by its nature, dictates that activity-oriented methods should be used rather than a rather passive method like lecture method. It has however been argued in this paper that when lecture is enriched, it serves a vital role in delivering science lessons profitably. Based on this position, it was recommended that lectures should be suffused with other methods, science teachers are advised to use visual aids as they teach and emphasis should be placed on hand-on-activities and experiences so as to maximally realize the benefits of lecture as an instructional process so as to improve field practice.
The study contributes to the on-going debate on the limitations of lecture in science teaching and learning. Its uniqueness and primary contribution is the appeal to suffuse lecture with activity-based methods to improve students’ engagement, academic achievement, morale, and career prospects of learners, hence the advocacy for enriched lecture.