Abimbola Oluyemisi Adepoju , Olajumoke Osunsanmi (2018). Gender Differentials in Labour Market Participation of Rural Households in Non-Farm Activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 5(4): 85-95. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2018.54.85.95
Gender inequities in labour market opportunities is a particular concern since earnings from labour supplies are the most important source of income for the poor in the rural economies of developing countries. This study examined gender differentials in labour market participation of rural households in non-farm activities in Oyo state, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was employed in selecting 120 rural households. Descriptive Statistics, Double- Hurdle regression model and Multinomial Logit regression models were the analytical tools employed. The mean farm size was relatively small as more than three-quarters of both male and female headed households respectively cultivated less than 1 hectare. Regression results indicated that male and female headed households participated and allocated more time to non-farm activities as their age and household size increased while farm size and remittances had negative effects. The decision on whether a household would hire or supply labour was largely influenced by the age of the household head, farm size, farming experience, household size and being a member of a cooperative group. However, female headed households’ participation was constrained mainly by inaccessibility to town as a result of the long distance between the homestead and the nearest town. The study recommends the establishment of small and medium enterprises in the rural areas to encourage the participation of both male and female headed households in non-farm income generating activities to cushion declining farm incomes.
This study contributes in the existing literature by complementing current research on labour market participation in Oyo State, Nigeria, a few of which have examined gender differences in non-farm activities by rural households.
The Impact of Intensive Utilization of Cultivated Land on Grain Yields: A Case Study of Shandong Province in China
Ruozhou Wang , Yanqing Jiang (2018). The Impact of Intensive Utilization of Cultivated Land on Grain Yields: A Case Study of Shandong Province in China. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 5(4): 76-84. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2018.54.76.84
Using time series data of agriculture in Shandong Province during the period from 2000 to 2015, this paper sets up an assessment system of intensive utilization of cultivated land, which has 4 criteria(input intensity, utilization intensity, output effectiveness and sustainability) consisting of 9 indices, comprehensively estimates the level of intensive use of agricultural land with entropy method, and empirically analyzes the impact of intensive utilization of cultivated land on grain yields through the use of a multivariable linear regression model. The results are shown as follows: (1) The level of intensive utilization of cultivated land in Shandong Province has been fluctuating upwards but not significantly progressing. (2) Grain yield per hectare is positively correlated with output effectiveness and utilization intensity, and the contribution of output effectiveness to grain yield per hectare is more than the other. (3) grain yield per hectare is negatively correlated with input intensity and sustainability. Therefore, in the long-term, cultivated land management strategy should be planned to improve the input intensity, to emphasis on the sustainability of farm land and to promote the consciousness of cultivated land protection in order to increase the productivity of grain yields.
This study contributes in the existing literature by supplementing existing research related to Shandong Province cultivated land, few of which have been conducted on the relationship of grain yield and intensive utilization of arable land. Hence, the current research constitutes an original contribution in this field.
Determinants and Extent of Pre- and Postharvest Losses of Fruits in Northwestern Ethiopia
Muluken Bantayehu , Melkamu Alemayehu , Merkuz Abera , Solomon Bizuayehu (2018). Determinants and Extent of Pre- and Postharvest Losses of Fruits in Northwestern Ethiopia. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 5(4): 68-75. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2018.54.68.75
The study was conducted to identify determinants of losses during pre-harvest and postharvest activities of fruits and their extent at producer`s level in Northwestern Ethiopia where tomato, papaya, avocado, banana and mango were used as fruit samples. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 180 randomly selected respondents of six districts (FinoteSelam, BurieZuria, Bahir Dar, Bahir Dar Zuria, Dangla and Farta). Descriptive statistics and multiple regressions analysis were used to identify determinant factors. The results of the findings revealed that the total fruit loss was estimated to be 44.8% where about 20.7% of the fruits were lost due to improper activities in the pre-harvest stages while about 24.1% loss was due to improper activities during post-harvest stages. The shares of pre-harvest and postharvest losses to the total fruit loss were about 46.2% and 53.8%, respectively. Income sources, use of pesticide, and use of compost or manure during production were the determinant factors that influenced fruit losses during pre-harvest while experience and educational levels of producers in fruit production and shortage of labor were the determinant factors of fruit losses during harvesting. Moreover, chemical treatments of fruits before storage and educational levels of the producers were the determinants that influenced fruit losses in producer`s storage while experiences of the fruit producers, distance to market and educational levels were the significant factors of fruit losses during marketing. Further researches and trainings of producers about use of pre- and post-harvest technologies that minimize losses at the value chain of fruits are vital.
This survey is one the few researches that has estimated fruit loss and identified the major factors responsible for loss. The research paper contribution is finding that about 44.8 percent fruit is lost and use of pre- and post-harvest technologies as well as educating producers about fruit loss is vital.
Pulsing Preservatives to Prolong Vase Life of Cut Rose Flowers in Bahir Dar, Northwestern Ethiopia
Selamawit Zelalem , Melkamu Alemayehu , Tadele Yeshiwas (2018). Pulsing Preservatives to Prolong Vase Life of Cut Rose Flowers in Bahir Dar, Northwestern Ethiopia. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 5(4): 54-67. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2018.54.54.67
The longevity of cut flowers including cut roses can be however prolonged using different pulsing preservatives where researches in this regard are lacking in the country. Keeping these bottlenecks of the sector in mind, this study was therefore initiated with objective to evaluate the effectiveness of different pulsing preservatives in prolonging vase life of cut rose varieties. The experiment was conducted at Tana Flora PLC in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. As pulsing preservatives Al2(SO4)3)(250 mg-1), Ca(ClO)2 (66.7 mg-1), STS [Ag (S2O3)2] (0.5 ml-1), Sugar (20 g-1) and distilled water were used. The three rose varieties namely: Upper class, Athena and Moon walk were used. Healthy flower buds having uniform length and harvested early in the morning were put immediately in containers filled with the respective concentration of pulsing preservatives. Flasks with six rose flowers each were placed in pre-cooling room (8-10 OC) for about 2 hours. Finally, treated cuttings were transferred into experimental room with temperature of 22-250C and 75% relative humidity and arranged in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. At this time, pulsing preservatives were replaced by distilled water. The analysis of variance revealed that most of parameters were highly significantly influenced by the main as well as interaction effects of pulsing preservative and varieties (P<0.0). Maximum water uptake (7.73 g/flower/day), transpiration loss (7.08 g/flower/day), flower fresh weight (21.77 g/flowers), flower head diameter (7.6 cm), and maximum flower vase life (23 days) were recorded in Athena variety pulsed with STS.
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated to improve the shelf life and quality of rose flowers particularly in our country. Therefore, the present finding will contribute to flower growers through identifying appropriate pulsing preservatives for rose cut flower.