Sanusi Mohammed Kabiru , Adeloye, Florence Fadeke , Adegebo Samson Adegbemi (2017). Problems Confronting Shea Butter Industry in Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 4(4): 101-112. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2017.44.101.112
The Shea sector of the Nigeria economy has the potential to generate wealth and employment for large number of people at the same time. However, this is yet to be seen as the industry is currently underexploited. This could be attributed to many problems affecting the entire value chain of the industry. The study reviewed the literatures as well as authors experiences on the field using participatory tools like in-depth interview, focus group discussion and observations to identify the problems confronting the entire Shea butter industry and proffer solutions to them. The problems identified by the study includes indiscriminate cutting of Shea trees, lack of storage facilities for the kernel and butter, poor quality butter produced, lack of modern processing technology, poor infrastructural facilities like road, electricity and water. Others are lack of access to market, no credit facilities and, lack of government assistance and seasonality of Shea kernel. The study recommended that relevant government agencies should providing an enabling environment such as water, electricity, modern processing technologies, storage facility, good roads and make by-laws to stop indiscriminate cutting down of Shea trees to ensure sustainability of the Shea industry. Bank of industry and commercial banks should give out loan to Stakeholders along the value chain line to stimulate Shea butter production. The stakeholders in the industry should also form functional cooperatives to collectively solve their problems.
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the problems confronting the Shea butter industry by looking at the Stakeholders along the value chain of production rather than looking at only the processors in a view to proffer solutions and inform policies planning on the way forward.
Isolation and Screening of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria from Rhizosphere of Tea (Camellia Sinensis L.) on Andisols
Betty Natalie Fitriatin , Amirah Widyasmara , Mahfud Arifin , Rina Devnita , Anny Yuniarti , Rachmat Haryanto (2017). Isolation and Screening of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria from Rhizosphere of Tea (Camellia Sinensis L.) on Andisols. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 4(4): 95-100. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2017.44.95.100
Andisols is a soil with high retention of phosphate and cannot be absorbed by plants. Some of soil bacteria have the ability to solubilize P and make it available to growing plants are known phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB). The research aims to get the kinds of bacteria potential of PSB in the tea plantation. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Biology, Faculty of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University from February 2016 to April 2016. Selection taken from five point blocks with a depth of 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm decision to the topography peaks and slopes. Obtained 23 isolates taken PSB and five isolates with the highest qualitative P solubility test in the soil. The experimental was conducted using Completely Randomized Design, which consists of ten treatments, sterile and non-sterile soil, and five isolates. Incubation was performed for 21 days and the total test bacteria, pH, and P-available every 7, 14, and 21 days. The results showed the best bacterial isolates that capable of solubilize phosphate was taken from A6 block located in the north area of the plantation with a depth of 0-30 cm and is at the peak topography with the ability to dissolve P in the soil is not sterile at 0.997 ppm on the 14th day.
Performance of Growing Grasscutters Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Soybean Meal Replaced by Brewers Dried Grain
G. S. I. Wogar , M. I. Anya , P. Benson (2017). Performance of Growing Grasscutters Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Soybean Meal Replaced by Brewers Dried Grain. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 4(4): 87-94. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2017.44.87.94
The objective of this study is to contribute to knowledge on the intensive rearing of the grasscutter (Thryonomis swinderianus), which is cherished for its meat and as a source of protein. The study, which involves five treatments and four replicates in a Completely Randomized Design, aims at determining the optimum performance of growing grasscutters fed diets in which soybean meal is replaced by brewers dried grain. Twenty female grasscutters, four weeks old, and weighing between 1312g and 1315 g, were randomly allotted in groups of four to five treatment diets, in which soybean meal was replaced at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% levels by brewers dried grain. The grasscutters were supplied water and elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) ad libitum. All data was subjected to the analysis of variance, and significantly different means were separated using Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Results indicate significantly (P=.05) superior performance in respect of average daily forage intake (278.70g), average daily total feed intake (75.54g), final body weight (2145.30g), average daily weight gain (9.79g), feed conversion ratio (7.73) and cost to gain ratio (0.34) for grasscutters in the 50% diet group. It was concluded that the best growth performance was obtained when grasscutters were fed a diet in which 50% of soybean meal was replaced by 50% of brewers dried grain.