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N.G. Malinga , M.B. Masuku , M.O. Raufu (2015). Comparative Analysis of Technical Efficiencies of Smallholder Vegetable Farmers with and Without Credit Access in Swazil and the Case of the Hhohho Region. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 2(4): 133-145. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70/2015.2.4/126.96.36.199
The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the technical efficiencies of smallholder vegetable farmers in the Hhohho region of Swaziland. Data were collected from farmers through a structured questionnaire, which was administered using personal interviews. A two-stage sampling procedure was used by stratifying the vegetable farmers in the Hhohho region according to the four Rural Development Areas (RDAs) in the region. This was followed a random sampling technique used to select the number of vegetable farmers from each stratum. A sample size of 120 farmers was selected from a population of 289 vegetable farmers. Descriptive statistics and a Cobb-Douglas production function were used to analyze the data using the STATA program (version 12). The results revealed that tomato yield was positively associated with the amount of chemicals used, while cabbage yield was positively related to seed, and fertilizer. Beetroot has positive relationship with amount of fertilizer and labour, but a negative association with the amount of land used. The yield of green pepper was negatively related to fertilizer and positively related to chemicals and amount of land used. The technical efficiencies of tomato and cabbage farmers were affected by age, education level, farming experience and access to credit (p <0.01), while beetroot and green pepper was affected by farmer’s age, and off-farm income (p <0.05). The study recommended that vegetable farmers should increase the amount of seeds, fertilizer and chemicals used in order to improve yields. The Swaziland of Swaziland should subsidize farming inputs and financial institutions should make credit easily available to vegetable farmers in order to improve the efficient use of input resources.
This study contributes in the existing literature on technical efficiency. It is noted that not many studies have been conducted on technical efficiency in Swaziland, especially on vegetable production. Hence, this is an original contribution in this field.
An Analysis of the Pre and Post Harvest Management Techniques in Rice Production: The Case of Unvda Ndop, North West Region, Cameroon
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This paper examines the adoption of improved pre and post harvest management techniques with a view to finding means to improve on the livelihood of rice farmers. These farmers were selected from two divisions (Bui and Ngoketunjia) where rice is being produced by the Upper Nun Valley Development Authority (UNVDA) in the North West Region of Cameroon. The study was to identify; the major causes of pre and post harvest losses, the management techniques adopted to overcome these losses, the socio economic characteristics of farmers that influence the adoption of the techniques. The multistage random sampling technique was used to get a sample of 120 rice farmers, from whom necessary information were elicited using questionnaires. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and binomial logit model. The results revealed that marital status, quantity of grains harvested, membership into a common initiative group and surface area cultivated were statistically significant factors influencing adoption of pre and post harvest management techniques. Also household size, farming experience and farm type were positively and statistically not significant factors while gender, age of farmer, level of education and income level affected adoption negatively and were not statistically significant Lack of financial incentives, inadequate machinery, poor soils, were major constraints faced by respondents. It was recommended that all factors that significantly affect adoption of technologies be improved.
This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the causes of pre and post harvest losses experienced by farmers of UNVDA and have used a different estimation methodology to determined factors influencing the adoption of pre and post harvest management techniques.
Farmers Assessment of the Training and Visit Extension System in Niger State: Evidence from Fadama Ii & Iii in Mokwa Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria
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Mohammed, U. , Olaleye, R.S. , Umar, I.S. , Ndanitsa, M.A. , Jibrin, S. (2015). Farmers Assessment of the Training and Visit Extension System in Niger State: Evidence from Fadama Ii & Iii in Mokwa Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 2(4): 111-119. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70/2015.2.4/184.108.40.206
The Training and visit (T&V) extension has been criticized for being top-down, top heavy, inefficient and ineffective. The purpose of this study therefore was to assess the effectiveness of the T&V extension in Mokwa local government area of Niger state Nigeria. Three specific objectives guided the study. A total of 450,000 farmers who had been in active production between 2004 and 2013 evidence from (FADAMAII & III) in the LGA constituted the population for the study. A four percent sample (1,800) was randomly selected for the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data, data were descriptively analysis. Demographically majority of the respondents were male aged 41-50 years, and married. slightly less than 5 percent (5.0%) were literate. Majority had been in the farming system for at least 11 years (53%) and had land holding almost exclusively by inheritance (96.0%). Other results indicate that majority of respondents has contact with Extension agents occasionally, most dependents on other source of agricultural information. Respondents reported that frequent level of Extension contact is unsatisfactory. But found information given by the Extension Agents useful. Majority of the respondents were aware of recommended agricultural technologies.
This study contributes in the existing literature of Farmers Assessment of the Training and Visit Extension System in Niger State This study uses new estimation methodology of questionnaires. This study originates new formula of ways to improve training of farmers in Niger State as well as others. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated Farmers Assessment of the Training and Visit Extension System in Niger State. The paper contributes the first logical analysis in Agricultural Extension The paper’s primary contribution is finding the problem of poor organization dilution of efforts This study documents the approach of reaching with extension information and for the purpose of teaching farmers improved farm methods should be overhauled.
Partial Budgeting Analysis of Different Strategies for Management of Insect Pests in Cashew and Mango Orchards in Tanzania
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Peng, R.K., K. Christian and K. Gibb, 2004. Implementing weaver ant technology in commercial cashew plantations. RIRDC Publication No. W04/088.
Peng, R.K., K. Christian, L.P. Lan and N.T. Binh, 2010. Integrated cashew improvement program using weaver ants as a major component - photo book for cashew growers in Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Agriculture Publisher. pp: 69.
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J.G. William , J. Hella , E. Lars , J. Offenberg , M. Mwatawala , G. Rwegasira (2015). Partial Budgeting Analysis of Different Strategies for Management of Insect Pests in Cashew and Mango Orchards in Tanzania. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 2(4): 98-110. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70/2015.2.4/220.127.116.11
Before changing from one production method to another, farmers need to consider costs and incomes resulting from the change. This study estimated the effects on net benefit of switching from conventional Tanzanian growing practices (spraying of chemical pesticides and non-pest control) to the use of African weaver ants (Oecophylla longinoda) to control pests in cashew and mango. Yield data from one cashew and one mango plantation covering two cropping seasons was used in an economic analysis. The use of chemical pesticides and the use of weaver ants resulted in higher yields compared to the non-control treatment. Lower input costs in weaver ant treatments, though, resulted in higher economic returns than the use of chemical insecticides in both seasons and crops. In all cases weaver ant treatments also produced higher returns than non-control treatments, despite their higher costs. Switching to African weaver ants without feeding was feasible due to positive net change in benefits in both crops. In cashew the average net benefit for the two seasons was 94% higher when using ants compared to non-control and 112% higher than in the chemical treatment. The corresponding values in mango were 117% and 63%, respectively. Marginal Rate of Return (MRR) was highest for African weaver ants without feeding in cashew at 235% in 2012/13 and 405% in 2013/14 seasons. Similarly, MRR was highest for weaver ant without feeding in mango at 509% in 2012/13 and 743% in 2013/14 seasons. In conclusion, the use of African weaver ants without feeding was consistently the most economically feasible management strategy to be used in Tanzanian cashew and mango pest management.
This study documents the effects on net benefit when switching from conventional agricultural practices to African weaver ants against insect pests in cashew and mango orchards in Tanzania