Arnaud, A., 2010. Conceptualizing and measuring ethical work climate development and validation of the ethical climate index. Business & Society, 49(2): 345-358.
Arnaud, A. and M. Schminke, 2012. The ethical climate and context of organizations. A comprehensive model. Organization Science, 23(6): 1767- 1780.
Arnold, D.G., R. Audi and M. Zwolinski, 2010. Recent work in ethical theory and its implications for business ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly, 20(4): 559-581.
Avey, J.B., R. Reichard, F.F. Luthans and K.H. Mhatre, 2011. Meta-analysis of the impact of positive psychological capital on employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 22(2): 127-151.
Briggs, E., F. Jaramillo and W.A. Weeks, 2012. The influences of ethical climate and organization identity comparisons on salespeople and their job performance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 32(4): 421-436.
Bulutlar, F. and O.E. Ünler, 2009. The effects of ethical climates on bullying behavior in the workplace. Journal of Business Ethics, 86(3): 273 - 295.
Caldwell, C., L.A. Hayes and D.T. Long, 2010. Leadership, trustworthiness, and ethical stewardship. Journal of Business Ethics, 96(4): 497-512.
Clapp Smith, R., G.R. Vogelgesang and J.B. Avey, 2009. Authentic leadership and positive psychological capital: The mediating role of trust at the group level of analysis. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 15(3): 227-240.
Culbertson, S.S., C.J. Fullager and M.J. Mills, 2010. Feeling good and doing great: The relationship between psychological capital and well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(4): 421-433.
Cullen, J.B., K.P. Parboteeah and B. Victor, 2003. The effects of ethical climates on organizational commitment: A two-study analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 46(2): 127 - 141.
Dawkins, S. and A. Martin, 2010. Is it all positive? A critical analysis of the current state of psychological capital research. Proceedings of the 24th ANZAM Conference, December 7-10, Adelaide EJ ISBN 1877040819.
DeConinck, J., M.B. DeConinck and B.D. Debasish, 2013. Outcomes of an ethical work climate among salespeople. International Journal of Business Administration, 4(4): 1-8.
DeConinck, J.B., 2010; 2011. The effects of ethical climate on organizational identification, supervisory trust, and turnover among salespeople. Journal of Business Research, 64(6): 617-624.
DeConinck, J.B., 2010; 2011. The influence of ethical climate on marketing employees’ job attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Business Research, 63(4): 384-391.
Fournier, C., J.F.J. Tanner, L.B. Chonko and C. Manolis, 2010. The moderating role of ethical climate on salesperson propensity to leave. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 30(1): 7-22.
Golparvar, M., 2013. Translate and validation of psychological capital questionnaire-26 items. Unpublished Manuscript, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan Branch, Esfahan, Iran.
Golparvar, M., Z. Javadian, M.R. Mosahebi and S. Alimardani, 2013. Ethical climate and deviant and organizational citizenship behaviors: The new motivational approach to justice compensation and organizational justice. Iranian Journal of Ethics in Science and Technology, 7(4): 41-52.
Jensen, G.M. and A.E. Richert, 2005. Reflection on the teaching of ethics in physical education: Integrating cases, theory, and learning. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 19(3): 78-85.
Johnson, C.E., 2007. Ethics in the workplace: Tools and tactics for organizational transformation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Kluemper, D.H., L.M. Little and T. DeGroot, 2009. State or trait: Effects of state optimism on job-related outcomes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(2): 209-231.
Larson, M.D., S.M. Norman, L.W. Hughes and J.B. Avey, 2013. Psychological capital: A new lens for understanding employee fit and attitudes. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 8(1): 28-43.
Lemmergaard, J. and J. Lauridsen, 2008. The ethical climate of danish firms: A discussion and enhancement of the ethical-climate model. Journal of Business Ethics, 80(4): 653 - 675.
Luthans, F., J. Avey, B.J. Avolio and S.J. Peterson, 2010. The development and resulting performance impact of positive psychological capital. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 21(1): 41-67.
Luthans, F., S.M. Norman, B.J. Avolio and J.B. Avey, 2008. The mediating role of psychological capital in the supportive organizational climate – employee performance relationship. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29(2): 219-238.
Mac Gee, E.A., 2011. An examination of the stability of positive psychological capital using frequency-based measurement. PhD Dissertation, University of Tennessee. Available from http://trace.tennesee.edulatk-graddiss/999.
Martin, K.D. and J.B. Cullen, 2006. Continuities and extensions of ethical climate theory: A meta analytic review. Journal of Business Ethics, 69(2): 175-194.
Mayer, D.M., M. Kuenzi and R.L. Greenbaum, 2009. Making ethical climate a mainstream management topic: A review, critique, and prescription for the empirical research on ethical climate. In D. De Cremer (Ed.), Psychological perspectives on ethical behavior and decision making. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. pp: 181- 213.
McMurray, A.J., A. Pirola-Merlo, J.C. Sarros and M.M. Islam, 2010. Leadership, climate, psychological capital, commitment, and wellbeing in a non-profit organization. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(5): 436 – 457.
Moore, H.L., 2012. Ethical climate, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction of full-time faculty members. Electronic theses and Dissertations. Paper No. 1407. Available from http://dc.etsu.edu/etd/1407.
Parboteeah, K.P. and E.A. Kapp, 2008. Ethical climates and workplace safety behaviors: An empirical investigation. Journal of Business Ethics, 80(3): 515-529.
Peterson, D.K., 2002. The relationship between unethical behavior and the dimensions of the ethical climate questionnaire. Journal of Business Ethics, 41(4): 313 - 326.
Peterson, S.J. and K. Byron, 2008. Exploring the role of hope in job performance: Results from four studies. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29(6): 785-803.
Peterson, S.J., F.O. Walumbwa, K. Byron and J. Myrowitz, 2009. CEO positive psychological traits, transformational leadership, and firm performance in high-technology start up and established firms. Journal of Management, 35(2): 348-368.
Rego, A., C. Marques, S. Leal, F. Sousa and M. Pina e Cunha, 2010. Psychological capital and performance of portuguese civil servants: Exploring neutralizers in the context of an appraisal system. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(9): 1531-1552.
Shacklock, A., M. Manning and L. Hort, 2011a. Dimensions and types of ethical climate within public sector human resource management. Journal of New Business Ideas & Trends, 9(1): 51-66.
Shacklock, A., M. Manning and L.L. Hort, 2011b. Ethical climate type, self efficacy, and capacity to deliver ethical outcomes in public sector human resource management. Journal of New Business Ideas & Trends, 9(2): 34-49.
Shapira-Lishchinsky, O. and S. Even-Zohar, 2011. Withdrawal behaviors syndrome: An ethical perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 103(3): 429-451.
Simha, A. and J.B. Cullen, 2012. Ethical climates and their effects on organizational outcomes: Implications from the past and prophecies for the future. Academy of Management Perspectives, 26(4): 20-34.
Stewart, R., S.S. Volpone, D. Avery and P. McKay, 2011. You support diversity, but are you ethical? Examining the interactive effects of diversity of ethical climate perceptions on turnover intentions. Journal of Business Ethics, 100(4): 581-593.
Swanepoel, S. and R. Innes, 2011. Organizational behavior: Exploring ethical climate and hope. International Conference on Management, Economics and Social Sciences (ICMESS'2011) Bangkok Dec., 2011.
Tsai, M.T. and C.C. Huang, 2008. The relationship among ethical climate types, facets of job satisfaction, and the three components of organizational commitment: A study of nurses in Taiwan. Journal of Business Ethics., 80(3): 565 - 581.
Tseng, F.-C. and Y.-J. Fan, 2011. Exploring the influence of organizational ethical climate on knowledge management. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(2): 325–342.
Umphress, E.E., J.B. Bingham and M.S. Mitchell, 2010. Unethical behavior in the name of the company: The moderating effect of organizational identification and positive reciprocity beliefs on unethical pro-organizational behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(4): 769-780.
Victor, B. and J. Cullen, 1987. A theory and measure of ethical climate in organizations. I n W.C. Frederick (Ed.), Research in corporate social performance and policy. Greenwich, CT: JAI, 9: 51–71.
Wagnild, G. and J.A. Collins, 2009. Assessing resilience. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 47(12): 28-33.
Walumbwa, F., F. Luthans, J.B. Avey and A. Oke, 2011. Authentically leading groups: The mediating role of collective psychological capital and trust. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(1): 4-24.
Wang, Y.D. and H.H. Hsieh, 2012. Toward a better understanding of the link between ethical climate and job satisfaction: A multilevel analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 105(4): 535-545.
Weber, J. and J.E. Seger, 2002. Influences upon organizational ethical sub-climates: A replication study of a single firm at two points in time. Journal of Business Ethics, 41(1-2): 69 - 84.
West, B.J., J.L. Patera and M.K. Carsten, 2009. Team level positivity: Investigating positive psychological capacities and team level outcomes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(2): 249-267.
Wimbush, J.C., J.M. Shepard and S.E. Markham, 1997. An empirical examination of the relationship between ethical climate and ethical behavior from multiple levels of analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(16): 1705-1716.
Yener, M., M. Yaldiran and S. Ergun, 2012. The effect of ethical climate on work engagement. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58(2012): 724 – 733.
Youssef, C.M. and F. Luthans, 2010. An integrated model of psychological capital in the workplace, in Linley PA, Harrington S and Garcea N (Eds.) Oxford handbook of positive psychology and work. New York: Oxford University Press. pp: 277-288.
Youssef, C.M. and F. Luthans, 2011. Positive psychological capital in the workplace: Where we are and where we need to go. In Sheldon, K. M., Kashdan, T.B., & Steger, M. F. (Eds.), Designing positive psychology. New York: Oxford University Press. pp: 351-364.
No any video found for this article.
Mohsen Golparvar , Afsaneh Rahmati Azarmonabadi (2014). Explaining Psychological Capital Components through Organization’s Ethical Climate Components. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 1(8): 216-228. DOI:
Organization’s ethical climate and its components are among major factors affecting employee’s different behaviors and emotions in work environments. Accordingly, the role of organization’s ethical climate components (caring, laws, rules, services and independence) on psychological capital components (self-efficacy, hope, resiliency and life orientation) was studied in this research. For this purpose, 267 employees of railway company, Isfahan, Iran, were selected and answered organization’s ethical climate and psychological capital questionnaires in a correlation research. The hypotheses of this research were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. The results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between some of the organization’s ethical climate components and self-efficacy, hope, resiliency and life orientation. Results of the regression analysis indicated that service and independence can predict the self-efficacy and hope; laws and rules, and service can predict resiliency and caring, and service can predict life orientation.
Impact of Microfinance Lending On Economic Growth of Third world Nations: Study of Nigeria
Adamu, G., 2007. Role of Microfinance Institutions in Actualization of MDGs. Nigeria: Paper delivered at the induction ceremony of Institute of Chartered Economists of Nigeria (ICEN) in Port Harcourt. pp: 5-6.
Boot Tibaths, 1969. Concept analysis on social and economic laws. Tiptree, Exsex: Anchor Press. pp: 17-18.
Dandana, A. and J.O. Nwele, 2011. The role of micro credit support to agricultural development in Nigeria. Interactive Seminar Lecture Series, Presented at a Research Seminar Class, International University, Bamenda, Cameroun, March 2011. pp: 13-14.
Modupe, L., 2009. Focus on enhancing financial innovation and access, an informative bulletin series, A Publication of the Nigerian Microfinance Newsletter, July – Dec 2009, 9: 6-7.
Obasi, J.N., 2009. Micro credit liquidity nexus to local content investment: An analysis of the performance assessment of the impact of micro credit support on subsistent farming in Bauchi State; Unpublished Seminar Paper, A Research Work for Skill Acquisition Workshop, on UNDP Programmes. pp: 18-21.
Otera, B., 1999. Business guide & marketing promotions. Lagos, nigeria: Published by new era parts. Pp: 7-8.
Nwele James Obasi , Ogbonna Innocent Chukwuka , Uduimo Anthony Akwawa (2014). Impact of Microfinance Lending On Economic Growth of Third world Nations: Study of Nigeria. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 1(8): 201-215. DOI:
This paper examines the impact of microfinance lending on the Nigerian economic growth. Specifically, the study sought to evaluate how microfinance lending to micro, small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria has impacted on changing the business fortunes of the poor and hence the Nigerian economy. Primary and secondary data were collected and analysed using programme designs, numerical structure response in implementation and performance model in a bid to delineate the relationship between microfinance loans and growth of micro, small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria. Our results reveal that the microfinance loans have not gone deep enough to ensure a clean break from community and commercial banking practices.
Corruption’s and Democracy’s Effects on Economic Growth
Amira Zaouali (2014). Corruption’s and Democracy’s Effects on Economic Growth. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 1(8): 186-200. DOI:
Economists have a long argue that political process such as democracy and corruption are important for economic growth. Our objective in this paper is to demonstrate that one of democracy’s indirect positive effects is its ability to mitigate the negative effect of corruption on economic growth. Although most democratic countries in our sample have a high level of corruption, the electoral mechanism inhibits leaders from engaging in acts of corruption that cause damage to economic performance and thus jeopardize their political survival. Utilizing a dynamic panel data approach for more than 40 countries over the period 2000- 2011, the results show that in democratic countries, corruption has no significant effect on economic growth, while the non-democratic countries suffer the negative effects of corruption that retard economic growth.
A Study of Transnational and Transformation Leadership Styles and Factors Affect The Leadership Style
Abdullah, M., Abu-Tineh, S.A. Khasawneh and A.A. Al-Omari, 2008. Kouzes and posner’s transformational leadership model in practice: The case of Jordanian schools. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 29(8): 648-660.
Alan, F.C. and A.J. Berry, 1998. Transformational leadership and learning orientation. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 19(3): 164-172.
Bernard, L., 1997. Transformational leadership in UK management culture. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 18(6): 283-289.
Boehnke, K., N. Bontis, J. DiStefano and C. DiStefano, 2003. Transformational leadership: Examination of cross national differences and similarities. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 24(1): 5-15.
Brain, K. and D. Lewis, 2004. Exploring leadership preferences in multicultural workgroups an Australian case study. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 25(3): 263-278.
Dorfman, P.W., 1996. International and cross-cultural leadership research, In B. J. Punnett & Fiedler, (1967) A theory of leadership effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hautal, T.M., 2006. The relationship between personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Management Development, 25(8): 777-794.
House, R., M. Javidan, P.J. Hanges and P. Dorfman, 2002. Understanding cultures and implicit theories across the globe: An introduction to project globe. Journal of World Business, 37: 3-10.
Jogulu, U.D., 2010. Culturally- linked leadership style. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 31(8): 705-719.
Laura, A. and Migliore, 2011. Relationship between big five personality traits and hofstede’s cultural dimensions: Sample from the USA and India. Cross- Cultural Management: An International Journal, 16(1): 38-54.
Rowold, J., 2011. Relationship between leadership behaviors and performance: The moderating role of a work team’s level of age, gender, and cultural heterogeneity. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 32(6): 628-647.
Sarros, J.C. and J.C. Santora, 2001. Leaders and values: A cross cultural study. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 22(5): 243-248.
Shalin, A.I. and P.L. Wright, 2004. Leadership in context of culture: An egyptian perspective. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 25(6): 499-511.
Shao, L. and W. Sheila, 2006. A cross- cultural test of the five- factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Business Research, 59: 936-944.
No any video found for this article.
Aarti Deveshwar , Indu Aneja (2014). A Study of Transnational and Transformation Leadership Styles and Factors Affect The Leadership Style. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 1(8): 176-185. DOI:
Current Global Corporative World provides the opportunity to the organizations to interact with various nations across the geographical limits. These interactions grant the cultural and value variations among the nations which recognized as the biggest challenge in front of the corporative managers. Suitability of an organization depends on the Effective leadership style in the complex competitive world. An Effective and Efficient Leadership style is the best tool to face these kinds of challenges. The paper focuses on the most popular Leadership style used by the international organizations in the current scenario. The study represents the picture of the existing literature on Transactional and Transformational Leadership styles and as well as on the cross-cultural dimensions model given by Greet Hofstede. The objectives of the paper (a) Comparative study of Transactional and Transformational Leadership Style and (b) Determine the cultural factors affect the leadership style.