P. R. Oliveira, G. H. Bechara, S. E. Denardi, K. C. Saito, E. T. Nunes, M. P. Szabo, and M. I. Mathias, "Comparison of the external morphology of rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks from Brazil and Argentina," Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 129, pp. 139–147, 2005.
F. Dantas-Torres, "The brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae): From taxonomy to control," Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 152, pp. 173–185, 2008.
R. G. Pegram, J. E. Keirans, C. M. Clifford, and J. B. Walker, "Clarification of the rhipicephalus sanguineus group (Acari, Ixodoidea, Ixodidae). II. R. sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) and related species," Systematic Parasitology, vol. 10, pp. 27–44, 1987.
A. Estrada-Peña, A. Bouattour, J. L. Camicas, and A. R. Walker, Ticks of domestic animals in the mediterranean region. A guide to identification of species, 1st ed. Edinburgh: Bioscience Reports, 2004.
S. Abdel-Shafy, S. M. Nasr, H. H. Abdel-Rahman, and S. M. Habeeb, "Effect of various levels of dietary jatropha curcas seed meal on rabbits infested by the adult ticks of hyalomma marginatum marginatum I. Animal performance, anti-tick feeding and haemogram," Tropical Animal Health and Production, vol. 43, pp. 347-357, 2011.
K. M. Famadas, N. M. Serra-Freire, and R. M. Landfredi, "Redescription of the larvae of amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius) (Acari: Ixodidae) using optical and scanning electron microscopy," Acarologia, vol. 38, pp. 100-109, 1997.
P. J. Homsher and D. E. Sonenshine, "Scanning electron microscopy of ticks for systematic studies. 2. Structure of haller’s organ in Ixodes brunneus and Ixodes frontalis," Journal of Medical Entomology, vol. 14, pp. 93–97, 1977.
A. R. Brody and G. W. Wharton, "The use of glycerol-kcl in scanning electron microscopy of acari," Annals of Entomological Society of America, vol. 64, pp. 528–530, 1971.
J. E. Keirans, C. M. Clifford, and D. Corwin, "Ixodes sigelos, n. sp. (Acarina: Ixodidae), parasite of rodents in Chile, with a method for preparing ticks for examination by scanning electron microscopy," Acarologia, vol. 18, pp. 217–225, 1976.
K. M. El Kammah, L. M. Oyoun, G. A. El Kady, and S. Abdel-Shafy, "Investigation of blood parasites in livestock infested with argasid and ixodid ticks in Egypt," Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, vol. 31, pp. 365-371, 2001.
S. Abdel-Shafy, "Scanning electron microscopy and comparative morphology of hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, H. dromedarii and H. marginatum marginatum (Acari: Ixodidae) based on nymphs," Acarologia, vol. 48, pp. 3-18, 2008.
S. Abdel-Shafy, "Scanning electron microscopy and comparative morphology of hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, H. dromedarii and H. marginatum marginatum (Acari: Ixodidae) based on larvae," Acarologia, vol. 48, pp. 19-31, 2008.
S. Abdel-Shafy, A. H. El Namaky, and F. H. M. Khalil, "Scanning electron microscopy and morphometrics of nymph and larva of the tick hyalomma impressum (Acari: Ixodidae)," Parasitology Research, vol. 109, pp. 1509-1518, 2011.
S. Abdel-Shafy, S. M. Habeeb, A. H. El Namaky, and H. A. A. Abou-Zeina, "Scanning electron microscopy of nymphal and larval stages of the cattle tick rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Say) 1821 (Acari: Ixodidae)," Global Veterinaria, vol. 10, pp. 1-8, 2013.
S. Abdel-Shafy, A. H. El Namaky, N. A. T. Allam, and S. Hendawy, "Scanning electron microscopy and morphometrics of nymph and larva of the tick hyalomma rufipes Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae)," Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 2014.
R. G. Pegram, C. M. Clifford, J. B. Walker, and J. E. Keirans, "Clarification of the rhipicephalus sanguineus group (Acari, Ixodoidea, Ixodidae). I. R. sulcatus neumann, 1908 and R. turanicus pomerantsev, 1936," Systematic Parasitology, vol. 10, pp. 3–26, 1987a.
Sobhy Abdel-Shafy , Amira H. El Namaky , Hala A. Abou Zeina , Alaa A. Ghazy (2015). Description of Immature Stages of the Brown Dog Tick Rhipicephalus Sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) Using Scanning Electron Microscopy. International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research, 1(1): 12-30. DOI: 10.18488/journal.110/2015.1.1/188.8.131.52
The brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a three-host tick that feeds primarily on dogs and occasionally on other hosts, including humans. Therefore, this study aimed to describe in details the immature stages (larva and nymph) of R. sanguineus using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and morphometeric analyses. The measurements of nymph and larva structures are relatively close to those of Hyalomma excavatum. The number and distribution of setae on either the dorsal or ventral surfaces of nymph differ from those of other ixodid ticks. Eyes have an elongated shape in nymph and larva. The position of sternal setae in nymph resembles the position of these setae in H. dromedarii. The shape and position of spurs on coxae in nymph and larva are considered the unique characters that can differentiate this species from other three species of R. sanguineus group (R. camicasi, R. turanicus and R. sulcatus). Palpi in nymph and larva are tending to each other forming triangular shape. The apices of palpi in nymph and larva are tapering. Basis capitulum has hexagonal shape dorsally in nymph and larva. Basis capitulum of nymph has a pair of spur-like ventrally. Further studies are needed in details on the immature stages of other tick species of R. sanguineus group such as R. camicasi, R. turanicus and R. sulcatus using advanced techniques such as SEM or molecular biology. These techniques may provide additional characteristics which may facilitate the identification of the immature stages of R. sanguineus group.
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the immature stages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus morphologically by scanning electron microscope.
Frequency of Gastrointestinal Parasites and Egg per Gram Faeces Count of Nematodes in Black Bengal Goat under Field Condition in West Bengal, India
P. Rout and K. Chauhan, "Genetics of disease resistance in goats," in Proceedings of Seminar on Goat Genome Held During 5-6th April, 2004. Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, Mathura, U.P. INDIA, 2004.
M. M. R. Hawlader, A. T. M. Mahbub-E-Elahi, S. Habib, and M. J. U. Bhuyan, "Gastro-intestinal nematode infestations in the black Bengal goats of Sirajgong district of Bangladesh," Online J. Biol. Sci., vol. 2, pp. 556-557, 2002.
J. Preston and E. Allonby, "The influence of breed on susceptibility of sheep to H. contortus infection in Kenya," Res. Vet. Sci., vol. 26, pp. 134-139, 1979.
S. Dhollander, S. Kora, M. Sanneh, M. Gaye, S. Leak, D. Berkvens, and S. Geerts, "Parasitic infections of West African dwarf goats and their saanen crosses in a zero- grazing farming system in the Gambia," Revue. Elev. Med. Vet. Pays. Trop., vol. 58, pp. 45-49, 2005.
A. Yadav and V. Tandon, "Gastrointestinal nematode infection of goats in a sub-tropical and humid zone of India," Vet. Parasitol., vol. 33, pp. 135-142, 1989.
R. Katoch, S. Mittra, R. Agnehotri, and A. Sharma, "Winter strongylosis in sheep and goats at high altitude: A sporadic occurrence," Indian Vet. J., vol. 75, pp. 363 -363, 1998.
M. Sissay, A. Uggla, and P. Waller, "Prevalence and seasonal incidence of nematode parasites and fluke infections of sheep and goats in Eastern Ethiopia," Trop. Anim. Health Prod., vol. 39, pp. 521-531, 2007.
S. Saha, S. Pramanik, and G. S. Mukherjee, "Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats in West Bengal," Int. J. Anim. Sci., vol. 11, pp. 51-52, 1996.
E. Soulsby, Helminth, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals. London, Great Britain: Bailliere Tindall, 1982.
G. Coles, B. C., F. Borgsteede, S. Geerb, T. Klei, M. Taylor, and P. Walter, "World association for the advancement of veterinary parasitology (WAAVP) methods for the detection of antihelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance," Vet. Parasitol, vol. 44, pp. 35 -44, 1992.
G. Snedecor and W. Cochran, Statistical methods, 8th ed. New Delhi: Published by Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, 1994.
J. Khajuria and P. Kapoor, "Prevalence of parasites in sheep and goats at Kathua- Jammu," J. Vet. Parasitol., vol. 17, pp. 121-126, 2003.
M. M. H. Mondal, M. K. Islam, and J. Hur, "Examination of gastrointestinal helminth in livestock grazing in grassland of Bangladesh," The Korean J. Parasitol., vol. 38, pp. 187-190, 2000.
A. Silvestre, C. Chartier, C. Sauve, and J. Cabaret, "Relationship between helminth species diversity, intensity of infection and breeding management in dairy goats," Vet. Parasitol., vol. 94, pp. 91-105, 2000.
H. Palamapalle, P. D. Deshpande, and B. Narladkar, "Gastro-intestinal nematodiasis in bovines of Marathwada region: Faecal culture and egg count studies," J. Vet. Parasitol., vol. 17, pp. 135-137, 2003.
T. Fritsche, J. Kaufmann, and K. Pfister, "Parasite spectrum and seasonal epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants in the Gambia," Vet. Parasitol., vol. 49, pp. 271-283, 1993.
A. Kumar, N. Arora, V. S. Vihan, R. Rana, and V. Gupta, "Tolerance level of egg per gram in haemonchos infection in goats under farming system," Intas Polivet., vol. 6, pp. 243-245, 2005.
C. Chartier and H. Hoste, "Repeated infection with haemonchous contortus and trichostrongylus columbiformis in dairy goats: Comparison of resistant and susceptible animals," Parasitol. Res., vol. 84, pp. 249-253, 1998.
K. C. Dhara , N. Ray , C. Lodh , P.K. Bandopadhyay , A. Goswami (2015). Frequency of Gastrointestinal Parasites and Egg per Gram Faeces Count of Nematodes in Black Bengal Goat under Field Condition in West Bengal, India. International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research, 1(1): 5-11. DOI: 10.18488/journal.110/2015.1.1/184.108.40.206
Prevalence as well as intensity of infection of gastro-intestinal parasites in Black Bengal goat under field condition in different season was done to assess the prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in Black Bengal goat under field condition to guide farm managers. The Coprological study of faecal samples of apparently healthy Black Bengal goat was conducted in field condition at Nadia district of West Bengal state of India from July 2005 to June 2006 through direct microscopic examination as well as floatation and sedimentation methods. Out of 1147 faecal samples examined, 715 (62.34%) samples were found to be positive for gastrointestinal parasites. Strongyle sp. was the most prevalent (77.48%) parasites followed by Paramphistome sp. (30.63%), Trichuris (14.55%), Moneizia (12.73%) and Fasciola sp. (6.29%). Seasonal prevalence rate and eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) count was highest in monsoon and lowest in summer. Monthly EPG count and prevalence rate was highest in November followed by October and September.The present study might help to decide the deworming schedule and management measures for farmers to increase the productivity of Black Bengal.
Fetal Maceration in Crossbred Holstein Frisian Heifer-A Case Report
S. D. Johnston, M. V. R. Kusritz, and P. N. S. Olson, Canine pregnancy. In: Johnston S.D. (Eds). Canine and feline theriogenology. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2001.
D. E. Noakes, T. J. Parkinson, and G. C. W. England, "Abnormal development of the conceptus and its consequences. In: Noakes D.E. (Eds). Arthur’s veterinary reproduction and obstetrics," ed Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2001, p. 138.
S. J. Roberts, Veterinary obstetrics and genital diseases (Theriogenology), Indian reprint, 2nd ed. New Dehli: CBS Publishers and Distributors, 2004.
M. Drost, "Complication during gestation in the cow," Theriogenology, vol. 68, pp. 487-491, 2007.
I. U. Ate, A. Bello, P. M. Nenshi, L. Allam, and M. Rashidat, "Fetal maceration associated with brucella ovis infection in a yankassa ewe," REDVET: Resist Electronic a De Veterinaria, vol. 12, pp. 1-6, 2011.
G. Serin and U. Parin, "Recurrent vaginal discharge causing by retained fetal bones in a bitch: A case report," Veterinarni Medicina, vol. 54, pp. 287-290, 2009.
T. E. Burns and C. Card, "Foetal maceration and retention of fetal bones in a mare," J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., vol. 217, pp. 878-880, 2000.
T. J. Jones, R. D. Hunt, and N. W. King, Genital system. In: Veterinary pathology. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 1997.
E. C. Feldman and R. W. Nelson, Periparturient diseases. In: Feldman E.C., Nelson R.W., (Eds). Canine and feline endocrinology and reproduction. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1996.
G. England, Pregnancy diagnosis, abnormalities of pregnancy and pregnancy termination. In: England G., Harvey M. (Eds). Manual of small animal reproduction and neonatology. Hampshire: BSAVA Manuals, 1998.
P. Sood, N. K. Vasishta, and M. Singh, "Use of a novel surgical approach to manage macerated fetus in a crossbred cow," Vet. Rec., vol. 165, pp. 347-348, 2009.
S. M. Parish, J. W. Tyler, and J. V. Ginsky, "Left oblique celiotomy approach for cesarean section in standing cows," J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., vol. 207, pp. 751-752, 1995.
H. K. Bhattacharyya , S. A. Dar , M. R. Fazili (2015). Fetal Maceration in Crossbred Holstein Frisian Heifer-A Case Report. International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research, 1(1): 1-4. DOI: 10.18488/journal.110/2015.1.1/220.127.116.11
A maiden crossbred HF heifer was treated by one local veterinarian for induction of parturition due to fetal death with cloprostenol sodium and thereafter by combination of dexamethasone plus estrogen with no success. Looking at the condition of the animal, cesarean was conducted using ventrolateral approach under line infiltration of local analgesia as per standard procedure. A macerated fetus was expelled. Metritis developed 8 days following operation and was treated successfully.